Occupation And Industry

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NOTE. - The volumes of the Census reports containing statistics on occupation and industry are:

Occupation Tables, 1934. 1

Industry Tables, 1934, price £1 12s. 6d. net.

The details of classification are dealt with in:

Classification of Occupations, 1934. 1

Classification of Industries, 1934. 1

Brief definitions of some 29,000 occupational terms are given in:

A Dictionary of Occupational Terms, 1927. 1

All of these are published by H.M. Stationery Office.

1. Introductory.

When the population of a country is considered in its working aspects, the first questions which naturally arise are—what are the people doing; how are the different kinds of work distributed with reference to geographical position and climatic conditions and to the sex and age of the workers; where do particular kinds of activities attain their greatest development; and in what ways and to what extent do the workers arrange themselves into groups for the production of such commodities and services as can only be produced by the combined efforts of a number of persons? It is the chief object of the Census reports on occupation and industry to provide answers to questions of this kind. The variety and complexity of the work done in a highly developed country like England and Wales is such that no report, however lengthy, could include detailed particulars of every kind of activity, and it is thus necessary to reduce to manageable size the amount of material printed. This is done in two ways. In the first place, the inquiry is limited to work that is done for monetary gain or profit: thus all children under 14 years of age (few of whom are now so occupied) and all women whose only employment is in domestic duties at home and who receive no wages in respect of such employment, are excluded; and no cognizance is taken of the many voluntary activities engaged in by men and women apart from their work for a living. In the second place, the number of separate headings or titles under which the workers arc classified is curtailed. An inspection of the volume entitled "Classification of Occupations" is sufficient to show that no other course would have been possible. The number of different occupations found in this country is of the order of 17,000. These are classified under some 600 headings, according to the nature of the materials used, the commodities produced, or the services rendered. The object of this grouping is to make each heading as homogeneous as circumstances permit. For some headings this is achieved without difficulty, e.g., hewers and getters of coal (042) piano tuners (553) and architects (813). In others, a few allied occupations are grouped together, e.g., the owners, agents and managers connected with coal and shale mines (040), tool setters (181) and advertising agents (723). But in many headings, the logical cohesion of the constituent members is weak, and the highly composite grouping can be defended only on the grounds that compression of the material is inevitable, and that tin; allocation of an occupation to some other heading might have been open to even greater objection than the allocation actually adopted. Such headings are the 'other skilled workers' (e.g., 2;8, 248, 278), "brokers" agents, factors' (firjo), and other persons engaged in scientific pursuits (819). The heading 'oilier unskilled workers (class of work specified) (940) which includes some 4,000 distinct occupations, is the despair of the classifier. It is of little use in itself and serves chiefly to complete the total and thus to provide some check on the numerical accuracy of the whole. Subject to such necessary limitations as those to which reference has just been made, and to the further limitations imposed by time and cost, it is the object of those responsible for the Census to set out the material in as detailed and informative a manner as is possible.

A secondary grouping of the headings into orders and sub-orders is carried out on the same general principles as those observed in devising the headings. This grouping, by the suppression of detail, and the reduction of error arising from the combination of small into comparatively large groups, facilitates broad comparisons and general views of the subject.

A second set of questions that arise are those which ask how the occupations of the people have changed in past years. These questions are sometimes of the highest interest, and may at. times be even more important than those in the first series, but, in the nature of things, the answers can seldom be so definite and detailed. The social organism is continually changing, new inventions and discoveries, new tastes and fashions, new habits and pursuits, all tend to withdraw effort from certain directions and to transfer it to others. It may be supposed that few people could have foreseen in 1841 the decline of agriculture, or in 1891 the development of the motor-car, or in 1901, that of radio engineering. This constant change tends to impair the value of comparisons between the results of one Census and those of its predecessors.

Then, too, new ways of making long familiar articles, or new methods of treating well known materials entail changes in the nature of an occupation that are not always indicated by a change of name. The operations of wood finishing, for example, may at present involve very different processes and risks from those of 50 years ago. The very fact that grouping is necessary makes impossible the tracing, in earlier Census records, of the small beginnings and early history of occupations or industries that have since become large and important. It follows, therefore, that comparisons with the past, even under the most favourable conditions, should usually be limited to the larger groups and occupations and that great caution should be exercised in attempting to deal with occupations that are numerically small, or with groups that are separated by more than one or two decades.

A third set of questions that arise are those concerning the future. What, it may be asked, is likely to be the numerical strength of an occupation in ten or twenty years time; or what will be the distribution of industry in a certain area 50 years hence. But here, even more than in the case of the past, the material must be used with care and discretion. Valid answers can be expected only in respect of comparatively large groups and short periods, after any available evidence as to current conditions and trends has been taken into account.

2. Scope of Inquiry.

At the Census particulars were required to be furnished in respect of each person aged 14 or over who followed some occupation or calling for payment or profit (whether working or out of work at the time) or who had formerly followed such an occupation and was then wholly retired. These particulars were separated into two categories, the personal occupation of the worker and the industry with which that occupation was connected. The nature and limitations of the information demanded are indicated by the headings of the columns in the Census Schedule in which it was required to be recorded. These were as follows:


Personal Occupation

State occupation or calling followed. If out of work or wholly retired, add "Out of work," or "Retired" as the case may be, after the statement of occupation.

The occupation must be stated precisely: vague or indefinite terms must not be used.

See Instructions.

Where the occupation is connected with Trade or Manufacture the reply should show the particular kind of Work done —the Material worked in or Article made or dealt in, if any.

In the case of Profession or Service the precise branch must be stated.

If more than one paid occupation is followed, state only that by which the living is mainly earned.

Apprentices and Articled Clerks should be included here.

See Instructions generally, and as to Special Cases.


Employer worked for in occupation stated in column K, and Employer's Business State Name, Business and Business Address of present employer (person, firm, company or public body) or, if out of work or wholly retired, of last employer.

The nature of the business should be fully described, and the product or kind of service stated, where applicable. Vague and indefinite terms must not be used.

If the employer carries on more than one kind of business, manufacture or service, the business and business address given should be that of the particular works, etc., where the person in question is employed.

But for Domestic Servants and others in private personal service, write only "Private." For an occupied person who does not work for an employer, but employs others for purposes of his or her own business, write "Employs Others," stating also nature of business unless identical with occupation returned.

For an occupied person who neither works for an employer nor employs others for business purposes, write "Own Account."

The information in column K provides the material for the volume of Occupation Tables, while that in column L provides the material for the volume of Industry Tables.

An additional column (M) was provided for persons, aged 14 and over, who were neither usually following an occupation for payment or profit nor were retired from such an occupation. These persons were coded with the letter X and were included, for convenience, in occupational order XXXII although they had no occupation within the definition adopted. Their numbers serve to complete the total of persons of 14 years of age and over, and thus form a check on the accuracy of the whole.

In order to give guidance to those responsible for filling in the schedules and to help them to do so carefully and intelligently, detailed instructions, followed by a series of Examples, were printed thereon. These are reproduced below.


Columns K and L relate only to persons aged 14 years and over who follow some occupation or calling for payment or profit or have retired from such an occupation. No entry may be made in these columns for wives or other relatives chiefly occupied in unpaid domestic duties at home, young people at school, or studying or preparing for a particular calling, persons permanently incapacitated by illness, etc., who have never followed any paid occupation, or persons dependent upon their own or others' private means. For persons in these classes an entry should be made in column M instead. But apprentices, articled clerks and persons training on similar terms should be entered in columns K and L as following tho occupations for which they are being trained.

A member of a household who is chiefly occupied in giving unpaid help in a business carried on by the head of the household or other relative should state the occupation in column K, and should give the required particulars in column L, treating the head of the business as employer.

In columns K and L the occupation, and the name, business and business address of the employer must be stated. The particulars about the employer are required solely for the purpose of identifying the industry, and will not be published. If the employer carries on more than one kind of business, manufacture or service, state the particular branch of the employer's business in which the employee is occupied (see Nos. 7 and 8 below).

Subject to the special cases mentioned below, the usual occupation should be stated. A person does not cease to have an occupation solely because he is for the time being unemployed. A carpenter remains a carpenter, even though he is temporarily out of work. In column K therefore the occupation must be stated whether the person is at work or out of work at the time. If a man who follows the calling of a carpenter is in work at Census time he will enter "Carpenter". If he happens to be out of a job at Census time he should enter "Carpenter, out of work" and the particulars given in column L should be those of last employer (see No. 20 below).

Special Cases. —But cases may occur where a man has not been employed at his original occupation for a very long time. The question is—what is the occupation by which he is seeking to earn a livelihood. If he is still seeking a living at his original occupation, he should enter that occupation (adding "out of work") even if he has been for a long time unemployed at it. If, on the other hand, he has no prospect of making a living by that occupation and is getting and relying upon some other work for his means of livelihood, he should state the occupation by which he is at present getting a livelihood. But if a man has done no paid work of any kind since he ceased to be employed at his original occupation, he should in any case state that occupation, adding "out of work" if still seeking to earn a living, or "retired" if no longer seeking to work for a living.

How to describe the personal occupation and employer's business. —Describe both fully and definitely. If the job is known in the trade or industry by a special name, use that name.

Do not use vague or indefinite terms. For example, the following terms are too vague, and must not be used by themselves:—column K, Foreman, Overlooker, Overseer (see No. 24 below), Operative, Factory-Hand, Mill-Hand, Machinist, Assistant, Collector, Polisher, etc., etc. Similarly in column L it is useless to enter Manufacturer, Merchant, Engineering, Tube Makers.

Labourer. —-Do not use this term by itself. For an unskilled worker usually employed on one sort of work alone distinguish the sort of work done, as Steel Works Labourer. If accustomed to work on different kinds of jobs, write "General Labourer". (See Nos. if> to 19 below).

Shop Keepers, Retail Dealers, Shop Assistants. —If wholly or mainly engaged in selling, add "Dealer" (if principal), or "Shop Assistant" or "Salesman" (if assisting). If, however, mainly making, though also selling, add "Maker". (See Nos. 30 and 31 below.) For Shop Assistants and Salesmen in Co-operative Stores and other departmental shops, state the particular Department in which engaged (see No. 32 below).

Coal, etc., Mine Workers. —State the occupation precisely and add whether above or below ground (see Nos. 25 to 27 below).

Domestic Servants. —If in private service it will be sufficient to write the word "Private" only in column L. But for Cooks, Waitresses, Chamber-maids, etc., employed in Hotels, Restaurants, Boarding-houses, the name, business and business address of the employer or employing firm must be stated.

Farm Workers. —A person following a definite occupation upon a Farm (such as cowman, carter, dairymaid) should be so described whether he or she is a relative of the farmer or not or whether paid or unpaid. For a relative assisting the farmer in the general work or management of the farm write "Assisting Father (or Brother, etc., as the case may be) in General Farm Work." (See Nos. n and 12 below).


1. Esmating clerk Wright & Simpson, Building Contractors, 691, High Street, Plaistow
2. Chief clerk (Passenger Department) Adriatic Shipping Company, Shipowners, 208, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.
3. Loom fitter (out of work) C.Jones & Co., Textile Machinery Makers, Broad Works, Oldham
4. Iron moulder Hipsons, Ltd., Iron Pipe Manufacturers, The Lion Foundry, Walsall
5. Brass caster Dudley & Sons, Gas Fittings Makers, 5, Back Lane, Darlaston
6. Press stamp operator Higgs & Billings, Aluminium Hollow ware Manufacturers, Light Street, Birmingham
7. Turret lathe hand Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Locomotive Engineers, Newcastle-on-Tyne
8. Tin box maker Co-operative Wholesale Society, Blacking Making Department, Pelaw
9. Market gardener Own account
10. Fruit Farmer Employs others
11. Cowman J. Watts, Farmer, Broadacres, Oulton
12. Assisting father in general farm work J. Watts, Farmer, Broadacres, Oulton
13. Hind, spade hand O. Jenkins, Farmer, Close Farm, Norwich
14. Garden labourer E. Stetson, Nurseryman, Malden
15. Farm labourer J. Brown, Farmer, Waters Farm, Honiton
16. Dock Labourer Philips, Ltd., Wharfingers, Murray Wharf, Wapping
17. Market Labourer Wing & Co., Wholesale Fruit Merchants, Covent Garden Market
18. General Labourer T. Hodges, Ltd., Alkali Manufacturers, Rush Works, St. Helens
19. Brass foundry labourer Stead & Co., General Mechanical Engineers, High Street, Gloucester
20. Fly frame tenter (out of work) Jenks Spinning Co., Cotton Spinners, Edge Lane, Oldham
21. Rag grinder Slaithwaite & Co., Shoddy Manufacturers, High Mills, Dewsbury
22. Card pegger Green & Strong, Worsted Weavers, Grand Road, Batley
23. Dyer's labourer J. Blake, Ltd., Bleachers and Dyers, High Road, Wigan
24. Foreman beetler T.Horlock & Co., Bleachers and Finishers, 3, Round Street, Oldham
25. Onsetter (below) Llanfan Colliery Co., Colliery Owners, Llanfan
26. Colliery lampman (above) (out of work) Llanfan Colliery Co., Colliery Owners, Llanfan
27. Roadman (below) Burtons, Ltd., Colliery Owners, Rhondda
28. Roadstone quarrier Stratton Rural District Council, Statton
29. Rockman Penryn Slate Quarry Co., Slate Quarriers, Penryn
30. Confectioner (cake maker) Wm. Smith, Baker and Confectioner, 18, Wyatt Steet Hull
31. Jeweller (dealer) Employs others
32. Shop assistant (Grocery Department) County Co-operative Stores, 16, Dow Street, Taunton
33. Milk roundsman W. Jones, Dairyman, 18, Stone Road, Canterbury

3. Classification and Analysis of Material.

The system of classification of occupations used for the 1931 Census is substantially that employed in 1921. Such revision as has been embodied in the current arrangement has been made upon the recommendation of the Census Sub-Committee which devised the 1921 classification and on which were represented the Board of Trade, the Home Office, the Ministry of Labour and the General Register Office. The principal features of this revision, so far as it affects occupations, are set out in Table G of the volume of Occupation Tables, pages 673-680, and which, in addition, provides a general comparison of the results of the two Censuses. Two changes to which attention may be drawn are the inclusion of the bulk of the unskilled workers in a single group under the title "Other unskilled workers, (class of work specified)" and the transfer to definitely occupational headings of certain occupations, the previous assignment of which was considered to be of an industrial rather than of an occupational character, e.g., coal gas workers included in 1921 in an Order entitled "Persons Employed Gas, etc., undertakings", but now included in Order IV (workers in the treatment of non-metalliferous mine and quarry products). The principle upon which the classification is based is the nature of the work performed though in the case of the productive occupations the nature of the material worked in has been embodied in the scheme as a factor essentially determining the character of the operations. The various considerations involved in devising the classification were dealt with in some detail in the General Report in the Census of 1921 and need not be described again in the present volume. Full details of the classification together with an alphabetical index of about 35,000 occupational terms is published in a volume entitled "Classifications of Occupations". Concise descriptions of most of the occupations named therein appear in "A Dictionary of Occupational Terms".

Two relatively minor changes have been made in the subordinate analyses of the figures. In the first place the age period covered by the statistics is now age 14 and over instead of age 12 and over as in 1921, and secondly a modification has been made in the terms describing the status divisions in which the occupied population is classified. With the growth of joint stock companies the old distinction between "Employer" and "Employee" has lost much of its significance and in place of these somewhat ambiguous classes the categories "Managerial" and "Operative" have been substituted.

The system of classification of industries as devised for the Census of 1921 and, with certain alterations and amplifications recommended by the Sub-Committee, to which reference has already been made, is the system followed in 1931. The principal changes in classification which altogether are few in number are indicated by foot-notes to Table B of the volume of Industry Tables, pages 714-719. There is, however, a change in principle to which reference should be made. This relates to the classification of persons employed in a branch of a business which is engaged either in the maintenance of the plant, etc., or in the production of articles used in that business and for which no special provision by means of sub-divided headings has been made. Previously these persons were classified in all cases to the main business or service to which their employment ultimately contributed. Now, however, if the branch is carried on in a separate factory or works, etc., the nature of the factory or works as an industrial unit is held to be the criterion of the industry to which they are to be assigned.

Subject to this qualification the industry to which each individual is classified is determined by reference to the business in, or for the purposes of which his occupation is followed, no matter what that occupation may be. Where, however, the individual is himself an employer or is working on his own account, regard is paid only to his business or profession in deciding to what industry he belongs. The tendency of modern business organisation is to become increasingly complex in structure and general character and the determination of the appropriate industrial assignment for a given individual is often difficult and involved. For example, a hand compositor is readily classified occupationally but it is a matter of some difficulty to allocate him to his appropriate industry when he may be employed, say, in the advertising department of the London sales office of a motor car manufacturing company. Again, a clerk in a business manufacturing motor car hoods, rope, twine and canvas goods or in any company carrying on more than one industry, cannot be coded industrially without some knowledge of the relative importance of the firm's manufactures. In cases of this nature the practice adopted has been to allocate the worker to that industry to which the majority of his firm's employees belong. In order to obtain the necessary information on this and similar points, employers of labour throughout the country were freely consulted. Their ready co-operation has materially assisted in securing more reliable returns and a better evaluation of industries has undoubtedly been the result.

Full details of the classification together with an alphabetical index of about 8,000 terms used to denote industries are published in a volume entitled "Classification of Industries"

In common with the occupational statistics the identification of the status of the individuals comprising the various industry groups or units has been supplied under the descriptions "Managerial", "Operative" and "Own Account". The managerial division consists of employers, directors, managers, superintendents and other persons of like status. This group has been further sub-divided as far as the returns would permit into managers of primary operations and managers of subsidiary departments

An innovation has been introduced by the inclusion on this occasion of Census statistics of persons out of work at the date of the Census. Much space is devoted to this subject in the volumes of Occupational and Industrial Tables. Reference to the tables in which the figures appear and some comments on certain aspects thereof are set out on page 156.

The areal description in respect both of occupation and industry is based throughout upon the individual's area of enumeration which may or may not be that of his place of business. Information regarding the latter was not obtained in 1931 and its inevitable disregard may for some purposes introduce an element of incongruity. This is not likely to be material in respect of the larger divisions of the country such as regions, but it may sometimes be of significance in the case of such smaller areas as are subject to a large daily flow and ebb of working population.

The method of presenting the occupational statistics of the 1931 Census differs considerably from that employed in 1921. In 1921 local statistics were given according to the full list of occupations in each County Volume for the county (with and without any county boroughs) for the separate aggregates of urban and rural districts, for any county boroughs and for each urban area with a population of more than 20,000 persons and according to the several orders of occupations for each of the smaller urban and rural administrative areas with the addition of particulars as to the numbers engaged in the separate occupations of greatest numerical importance. In the general volume of Occupation Tables the local information was completed by the addition of statistics for each occupation in the national aggregates of county boroughs, urban districts and rural districts and the whole were combined to produce the Tables for England and Wales. Statistics analysed according to the industrial classification were not given in the county volumes but appeared in a volume of Industrial Tables in which, in addition to the Tables for England and Wales, figures in the same detail of industry were given for six specially selected industrial areas.

In the 1931 series of County Volumes no statistics of occupation and industry were included. Such statistics were presented in two special volumes, Occupational Tables and Industry Tables, both of which were published in 1934. In the volume of Occupation Tables statistics were given according to the full list of occupations for each county (with and without any county boroughs) for each county borough and other urban areas with populations exceeding 50,000 persons and for a number of regions which, with two exceptions,—Greater London (the City and Metropolitan Police districts) and North 3 (the West Riding of Yorkshire with the County Borough of York) —differ from the industrial areas used in 1921. The local information provided in respect of the smaller urban and of the rural areas was similar in scope to that of 1921 but the several orders were supplemented throughout by the addition of certain numerically important occupations and groups of occupations. Some saving of space was effected in the statistics regarding females by the combination of certain orders in which they are relatively unimportant. In the volume of Industry Tables the analysis according to the industrial areas of 1921 was abandoned and in its place the same general plan of presenting local statistics as that used for occupations was followed so that for the first time statistics for counties and large towns are available both for occupations and industries. In addition, a number of special tables were introduced setting out the distribution of workers in retail businesses and amplifying in certain other directions the statistics previously presented.

Such changes as these just described tend to impair the comparability of the statistics of one Census with those of another and thus to detract from their historic interest and utility. It is to be hoped that the advantages which may be supposed to arise from a more completely logical scheme of classification and from an improved regional division will outweigh the disadvantages that inevitably accompany all such changes.

4. General Analysis by Occupation and Industry.

The occupational and industrial data that emerge from the Census, after the various processes of coding, sorting and tabulation have been completed, are the enumerated numbers of males and females classified by occupation and industry, according to age, locality and other variables. These data form the statistics printed in the volumes of the Census Report relating to Occupations and Industries. But since the relations of such numbers, one to another and to the appropriate totals, are difficult to understand when thus expressed it is usual to facilitate their study by no reducing them to the form of rates per hundred or per thousand. Where the degree of detail in which the figures are printed is too great for the needs of the particular inquiry that is being undertaken, the combination of the smaller into larger and more suitable groups is carried out as a preliminary to the calculation of rates. The object of such treatment is to bring out the important features of the statistics with the minimum of detail consistent with the nature of the figures and the purpose of the inquiry. But as different degrees of detail are required for different purposes, the basic material is produced in as great a degree of sub-division as circumstances allow, so as to admit of combination in a variety of ways according to the requirements of the various objects of inquiry. In dealing with occupational data two types of rates are of especial use.

The first expresses the numerical strength of an occupation in any area to the number of males, females, or persons of working age enumerated in the area, and thus provides a measure of the local importance of any occupations in relation to the others. The second expresses the numerical strength of an occupation in any area, e.g., a county or other administrative area, in relation to the total number who follow the same occupation in a larger area, e.g., the entire country. Extensive use is made of rates of these kinds in this section of the present Report, though others are introduced whenever they seem to be of sufficient interest.

In dealing with occupations in the General Report of the Census of 1921, the areal unit to which attention was chiefly directed was the county; the constituent administrative areas having been the subject of comment in the County series of Reports. In the County series for the 1931 Census, no occupational material was included and though the county is the unit normally dealt with in the notes which follow, mention is made of smaller areas where the local importance of an occupation seems to justify it, but the detailed treatment of such areas on the scale of the 1921 reports has not been possible on the present occasion. Attention must also be drawn to another change.

In the General Report of the Census of 1921, the occupations of males and females were discussed in separate sections. Certain occupations are still followed mainly or exclusively by men or by women: for example, fishermen, locomotive engine drivers and underground workers in coal mines among men, and dressmakers and midwives among women. There is a general tendency, however, towards the gradual weakening of the influences that restrict an occupation to the members of one sex, especially the male sex, with the result that the range of occupations in which women engage has been extended, and their proportions have increased in occupations formerly followed chiefly by men. On the other hand, men are now found in certain occupations —e.g., dress-designing—from which at one time they were virtually excluded; but the numbers involved in such cases are insignificant as compared with those of women now working in what used to be regarded as men's occupations. Since, therefore, there are now few occupations in which both men and women do not find a place, it has seemed expedient in the present Report to follow the observed phenomena and to deal in a single section with all those who follow a given occupation, rather than to attempt a separate occupational treatment for each sex. In dealing thus with the material, it is believed that a more comprehensive view of the subject may be obtained, and that the relative share taken by each sex may be understood more easily.

In any study, however, of the occupational relations of the sexes it should be noted that though women are now found in most occupations and their numerical importance in relation to men is increasing, there are substantial differences in their relative position and importance that are not expressed by their total numerical proportions.

In the nature of things, there will always be a tendency for women, on marriage or shortly after, to leave any occupation they may have entered, and the expectation of marriage must necessarily affect in some degree the choice of an occupation and their subsequent attitude towards it. It follows, therefore, that women in general will be found to occupy the more junior or routine and less responsible posts and that few of them will rise to positions of importance and responsibility. At the other end of life, women who become widows, who have never learned an industrial craft or have forgotten their skill, etc., will tend to become charwomen, office cleaners or lodging house keepers because in many cases these are the only ways of earning a living that are open to them.

The occupation results of the Census of 1931 are summarised in some of their aspects in the following tables.





The degree of detail shown in these tables will probably suffice for a review of the subject such as is appropriate to a General Report. If it be desired to make studies for which a greater degree of detail is required it can be obtained from the volumes of Occupation and Industry Statistics. Table XLVIII shows the percentage distribution according to marital condition and industrial status, and the percentages out of work and retired for all the occupational orders and sub-orders and for a considerable number of separate occupations. Table XLIX presents in a similar form, an analysis of the industry groups, but without distinction of marital condition and without reference to the retired population. Table L shows the total proportions occupied and out of work in the regions, in counties (both with and without any associated county boroughs) and in county boroughs. In Tables A and B of the Occupation Tables Volume (pp. 660-667) the proportions of the occupied are shown for occupational orders and certain groups, in regions and counties (with any associated county boroughs), and in Table LI is given the distribution, per 100,000 in England and Wales, of the popxilation aged 14 and over according to region and occupational order. Age analysis in thirteen groups and in considerable sub-division of occupation is provided in Tables C and D of the Occupation Tables Volume (pp. 668-670).

The notes on the several occupational groups that appear in the following pages are based largely on the information contained in the aforesaid tables.

Order 1. Fishermen.— The fishermen enumerated at the Census include those who were on shore, or were in port, at midnight of 26th/2yth April, 1931, and those who, within the following fortnight, arrived in port, having been in some other port in Great Britain, or on a coastwise or fishing voyage, on Census day. Fishermen on a coastwise or fishing voyage were allocated according to the position of their vessel at midnight of 2&th/27th April. In considering the numbers recorded the special circumstances of the occupation and any differences in practice that may exist between one port and another must be taken into account. In many cases, especially where fishing grounds are near to the home port, it is usual for vessels to come into port for the week-end; in others the vessels may remain at sea continuously for several weeks. Again the number of men engaged in fishing may depend on the weather, the season, the movements of profitable shoals or the attractiveness of other occupations. In this connection it is to be noted that in 1921 the Census was taken in June and in 1931 in April and that many men riormally employed in fishing are employed in the summer on yachts or in the entertainment of holiday visitors. For these and for other reasons the numbers enumerated are unlikely to measure the full strength of the occupation. For the country as a whole and for many of the county areas local variations will tend to cancel each other and so make valid comparisons possible between one area and another and between one Census and another, but for single administrative areas and particularly for the smaller ports, variation in the numbers enumerated cannot be relied on to correspond to changes in the strength of the occupation.

Table LI I has been drawn up to show the distributions recorded in 1921 and 1931. The county areas being arranged in order of decreasing numerical importance in 1931. Among county areas the first place is taken by Lincolnshire, the parts of Lindsey, with 4,957 or 18 per cent, of the fishermen in the entire country. Then follow in order Yorkshire, East Riding (15 per cent.), Lancashire (10 per cent.), Cornwall (9 per cent.) and East Suffolk (8 per cent.).

Of the 4,957 enumerated in Lindsey 4,902, or 99 per cent., are concentrated in Grimsby and its immediate neighbourhood. This constitutes the best example of large scale industry. Concentrations, similar in character but smaller in size, are to be found at Kingston-upon-Hull, Fleetwood, Lowestoft, Milford Haven, Tynemouth and Great Yarmouth. Small scale industry, characterized by smaller vessels and smaller and more scattered ports, is found typically in Cornwall and Devon, which together account for 14 per cent, of the country's fishermen.

Among individual areas, remarkable proportions (per 1,000 males over 14) are found in Paul U.D. (Cornwall) 333 Milford Haven U.D. (Pembroke) 304, Padstow U.D. (Cornwall) 221 and Fleetwood U.D. (Lancashire) 216. The largest proportion in a county is that of 49 per 1,000 in Pembroke.

Table LIII shows how the recorded numbers have varied in certain county areas from 1891 to 1931. Where increases or decreases have shown consistent trends over long periods, advances or declines in the fishing industry may be inferred. Thus, advances are indicated in Lincolnshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Pembroke and Glamorgan, and declines in Cornwall, Devon, Kent and the North Riding of Yorkshire. The counties included in this table together account for a large percentage of the national total—from 84 in 1891 to 92 in 1931.



Order II. Agricultural Occupations. The number of workers assigned to these occupations in England and Wales is 1,172,256, of whom 1,116,573 are males and 55,683 females; the proportions being respectively 76 and 3.4 per 1,000 of all over 14 years of age, and 84 and 9.9 per 1,000 of the total occupied. Of the 31 orders into which the occupations are grouped, agriculture occupies numerically the seventh place, the numbers engaged therein being exceeded by those of metal workers (Order VII), transport workers (Order XXII), commercial occupations (Order XXIII), workers in personal service (Order XXVII), clerks, etc. (Order XXVIII) and other and undefined workers (Order XXXI). In 1921, the corresponding numbers of agricultural workers were 1,165,052 males and 82,722 females; the decreases in 1931 are 4.2 per cent, for males and 32.7 for females. In 1931, females form 4-8 per cent, of the total: in 1921, the corresponding figure was 6-6 and in 1911, 7.6.

The proportions of male agricultural workers (per 1,000 total males aged 14 years and over) which are shown for each region and county in Table A (page 660) of the 1931 Occupation Volume, range from 480 in Lincoln, Holland, 457 in Radnor and 446 in Montgomery to 23 in Middlesex, 22 in Glamorgan and 4 in London. It is evident that these proportions must depend largely on the degree to which non-agricultural occupations have been developed and on the extent and nature of the land available for agricultural work, and that these, in turn, depend largely on the degree of urbanisation that has been reached.


While the information provided by the Census does not admit of a detailed examination of the connection between urbanisation and agriculture, a general idea of the relation may be had by dividing the workers according to the two classes of area that are defined administratively as urban and rural districts (the former including London, the county boroughs, the municipal boroughs and the urban districts). In so doing it is to be remembered that most urban districts include land used for agricultural purposes, that portions of many rural districts are of an urban character, that the Census classification is according to area of enumeration and that many persons live in the one class of area and work in the other.

The figures in Table LIV set out in broad outline the distribution of agricultural workers as between the two classes of area in the years 1921 and 1931. The changes shown therein are closely connected with the transfers of area that are continually taking place from the rural to the urban districts. In 1931, rather less than a quarter of the males and rather more than a quarter of the females are enumerated in urban districts. For both sexes there is an increase of the percentage over that of 1921, thus continuing the trend observed between 1911 and 1921. Of the male agricultural workers in urban areas 50 per cent. are gardeners (013) or gardeners' labourers (030), 29 per cent. agricultural labourers (021-023) and 16 per cent. farmers (011) or their relatives (012). In the rural districts, the corresponding percentages are 16, 46 and 31.

Although the proportion of agricultural workers enumerated in urban areas is large and, mainly by reason of the extension of the boundaries of such areas, tends to increase, agriculture is essentially a rural pursuit, and the distribution of the workers is most appropriately studied in the, statistics of the rural districts. For this reason, Tables (LV and LVI) have been prepared. In these the areas considered are the aggregates of rural districts in each county. Table LV shows the proportions of male agricultural workers in 16 groups per 1,000 males over 14 years of age; and Table LVI the actual numbers assigned to the more important occupations (columns 4 to 7) and a series of ratios designed to throw light on the kind of work done (columns 9 to 12), and the share taken by female workers (columns 13 and 14).

A comparison of the columns showing the proportions of male agricultural workers in admin¨ istrative counties, including county boroughs (Table A of the Occupation Volume, page 66o) and in the rural aggregates in counties (Table LV) shows a substantial correlation-of the 19 counties having the highest proportions in each table, 16 are common.

Of the several occupations distinguished in Table LV, farmers (011) show very high proportions in some of the Welsh counties, six of which-Montgomery (242), Radnor (239), Cardigan (224), Pembroke (194), Merioneth (176), and Anglesey (173) yield rates higher than any found in the English counties. For gardeners (013) on the other hand the highest proportions occur in England, Surrey (l00), East Sussex (94), West Sussex (86), Worcester (84), and Berkshire (72) having figures more than twice the average of England and Wales: the highest figure in Wales, that in Monmouth (33), being a little lower than the average. The proportions of foresters and woodmen (016) reach double figures in only four counties, Montgomery (14), Monmouth (12), Hereford (ii) and West Sussex (10). Shepherds are returned in a very high proportion in Northumberland (28 per 1,000) the next highest being only 12 in the East Riding of Yorkshire. In Wales, the highest proportion recorded is 10 in Merioneth. It may be doubted whether the proportion of shepherds, as returned, constitutes a reliable index to the extent of sheep farming. Further information is provided in Table LVI, column 12, which gives the proportion of shepherds among all agricultural labourers.


An index to the intensity of agricultural effort, as measured by the number of male workers per 10,000 acres, is given in Table LVI (column 9). Large numbers are recorded in Lincoln, Holland (554), the Isle of Ely (518), and in three counties adjacent to London, Middlesex (497), Surrey (455), and Kent (433). At the other end of the scale are Brecknock (97), Merioneth (99), Westmorland (115), and Radnor (117).

Some information as to the scale of agricultural operations is found in the ratio of the numbers of labourers to farmers (Table LVI column 10) and the average acreage per farmer (column u). For the former exceptionally high ratios occur in Suffolk, Hertford, Berkshire and Essex. In Wales they are consistently low. The average acreage per farmer provides an index to the relative aze of agricultural holdings: among the English counties it is highest in Northumberland (452), and lowest in Lincoln, Holland and the Isle of Ely (86). The average in Wales is rather lower than in England and the range of area considerably less.


The numbers of female agricultural workers is shown in Table LVI, column 13, and their percentage of the total in column 14. The average is 46 per 1,000; of the English counties, Northumberland (118 per 1,000), Durham (91), Lincoln, Holland (87), Lancashire (79), Cumberland (73), Cheshire (72), Westmorland (70), and the Isle of Ely (69), return rates of 50 per cent, or more above average, while in Suffolk (18), Wiltshire (20), Bedford (20), Cambridge (20), Northampton (21) and Oxford (22), the rates are less than half the average. In Wales, the average proportion (82) is about twice that in England (42); very high figures are returned in Carmarthen (156), Cardigan (126), and Pembroke (124).

Order III. Mining and Quarrying Occupations. —The workers assigned to this group of occupations number 968,771 and show a decrease of 8-9 per cent, as compared with their number in 1921, namely 1,063,229. Of these workers, 2,561 or 2-6 per 1,000 of the total, are women. Of these women 94 per cent, are "other workers above ground" (code number 049) about coal and shale mines, and are chiefly employed in Lancashire. As the women in this order form a small and decreasing fraction of the total, they need not be further considered. The males, on the other hand, are numerous and important. They number 966,210 and form a proportion of 66 per 1,000 males over 14 in England and Wales, the proportions for the various regions and counties being given in Table A on page 660 of the Occupation Volume. They fall into three sub-orders, those working in (I) coal and shale mines, (2) metalliferous mines and workings and (3) other mines and quarries, and at brine and oil wells.

In Table LVIII are shown the numbers assigned at the Censuses of 1921 and 1931 to each of these sub-orders and the corresponding proportions in each of the counties of England and Wales and the percentage increase or decrease between one Census and the other.

Coal and Shale Mines. —Of the three sub-orders, the first—workers in coal and shale mines— is much the most important, the members numbering 891,853 or 92-3 per cent, of the entire order. The occupational distribution of males aged 14 and over in 1921 and 1931 is shown in the following table.



It is to be noted that there is an all over decrease of 9-8 per cent., that five of the occupations show decreases, the greatest, 36-5 per cent., being among owners, agents and managers (040), and that two show increases, viz., 1-9 per cent, in respect of men conveying material to the shaft (043) and 14-9 per cent, in respect of men making roads (044). The change in distribution is also of interest, the proportions of owners, superintending staff and hewers and getters having declined and those of the other occupations having increased.

The geographical distribution may be studied in the summary provided in Table LVIII, or if detail is required, in Table 16 of the Occupation Tables. The counties in which there are the largest number of coal miners are, in order, the West Riding of Yorkshire (171,496; 135 per 1,000 males aged 14 years and over in the county), Durham (142,931; 268 per 1,000), Glamorgan (134,789; 295 per 1,000), Lancashire (81,451; 45 per 1,000), Derby (57,258; 202 per 1,000), Stafford (54,513; 105 per 1,000), Monmouth (52,585; 321 per 1,000), Nottingham (52,402; 202 per 1,000) and Northumberland (48,431; 176 per 1,000). In these and in the less important coal mining counties the general rule is one of decrease in numbers as compared with 1921. On the average this is 10 per cent., and, among the counties recording more than 5,000 miners each, ranges from 3-3 in Cumberland to 35-6 in Gloucester.

In three counties, however, those of Kent, the West Riding of Yorkshire and Nottingham, increases of 181-3, 10.5 and 5.4 Per cent, respectively are recorded. The increase in Kent is especially noteworthy; in 1911 the number of all grades of coal miners enumerated was 168, in 1921 it had risen to 1,904 and in 1931 to 5,355. The districts mainly concerned are Eastry Rural District and Dover, Deal and Ramsgate Municipal Boroughs.

The presence of an increased number of miners in certain counties where, so far as is known, no coal mining operations are in progress, probably indicates that some of them have migrated there in search of work in other industries.

The distribution by occupation of the miners in the counties in which totals of more than 10,000 are recorded in 1931 are set out in Table LIX. These counties contain about 844,000 out of a total of about 892,000 or 95 per cent, of the coal miners in England and Wales. The largest numbers are found in the West Riding of Yorkshire, Durham and Glamorganshire. The differences in the proportions are of interest: thus owners, agents and managers (040) vary from 7 per 1,000 in Lancashire to 3 in Durham, Nottingham and Denbigh; the subordinate superintending staff from 63 in Warwick to 21 in Denbigh; hewers and getters from 603 in Monmouth to 393 in Northumberland; and men making and repairing roads from 128 in Warwick to 44 in Lancashire. These differences may be due mainly to differences in the conditions and methods of mining: but the possibility that they may be due partly to variations in the way in which the workers describe their occupations is not to be excluded. As evidence of the former, reference may be made to the wide variations in the amount of coal produced per man employed: in 1931 this ranged from 176 tons in the Cumberland and Westmorland district to 321 tons in the South Staffordshire and Worcestershire district, the average for the whole of England and Wales being 244 tons (see Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, Cmd. 5353, 1937 Tables, 202, 203).

The national percentage of coal and shale miners stated to be out of work in each sub-order (see Occupation Tables, pps. i or 87) is as follows:—

040 Owners, agents, managers 7.2
041 Subordinate superintending stall 7.4
042 Hewers and getters 20.3
043 Persons conveying material to the shafts 13.2
044 Persons making and repairing roads 18.5
047 Other workers below ground 21.5
049 Other workers above ground 19.3


Metalliferous Mines and Workings. —The male workers in metalliferous mines (050-056) number 14,106 and show a decrease of 37 per cent, as compared with 1921. In four counties they form a proportion of over 20 per 1,000 males over 14 years of age, namely Cumberland (32), Rutland (23), the North Riding of Yorkshire (23) and Cornwall (21). Proportions of a different order but of local significance occur in six other counties: Northampton, Lincoln, Lindsey, Lancaster, Leicester, Derby and Glamorgan. In these ten counties 91 per cent, of the national total were enumerated. Only three of these counties record increases as compared with 1921—Derby 54 per cent., Leicester 14 per cent, and Glamorgan 78 per cent. The most serious reduction seems to have occurred in Staffordshire, where there were 1,246 of these workers in 1921 but only 112 in 1931.

The Industry Tables (page 545) show that, out of the total of 14,106,10,209 (72 percent.) are iron miners, 948 (7 per cent.) lead miners, and 2,464 (17 per cent.) tin and copper miners. Most of the remaining 4 per cent, seem to have been employed by coal, iron and steel companies, and hence to have been engaged in mining iron ore. From the same volume it appears (Table 2) that iron mining is chiefly carried on in the North Riding of Yorkshire, in Cumberland, in Derbyshire, and in Northamptonshire; lead mining in Derbyshire and Durham, and tin and copper mining in Cornwall.

These industries are all remarkable for the large proportions out of work (see Industry Tables, p i), and especially so in tin and copper mining.

The particulars are as follows:—


Industry Code No. Industry Total workers Out of work
Number Percentage
039 Coal, iron and steel companies 5,030 1380 27
040 Iron ore mines and quarries 12,942 3735 29
041 Lead mines 1,473 474 32
042 Tin and copper mines 3,478 2550 73

Other Mines and Quarries. —The workers in other mines and quarries (060-069) number 60,251, and, in contrast with the workers in coal and metalliferous mines, show an increase—of 23 per cent. Apart from the slate workers their distribution is much less uneven, so that, while most of the counties show a significant number, the proportions are usually much lower. They fall into three main occupations according as they work in stone (062), slate (063) or in chalk, clay, sand and gravel (064). The first occupation (062) consists of 31,846 workers, or rather more than half the number assigned to the sub-order. The highest English proportions occur in Westmorland (15 per 1,000), Cornwall (14), Dorset (u), Somerset (n), Shropshire (10), Derby (9) and Rutland (9). In Wales a much higher average is found: Caernarvon (30), Anglesey (15), Denbigh (15), Merioneth (15), Radnor (15), Montgomery (13), Brecknock (9) and Pembroke (9).

Slate quarriers (063) have a very restricted distribution. Out of a total of 6,863, 5,587 or 81 per cent, are located in two counties: 1,555 in Merioneth and 4,032 in Caernarvon, where the proportions attained are respectively 96 and 91 per 1,000. Small numbers are recorded in Cornwall (203), Cumberland (97), Lancashire (260), Westmorland (65), the West Riding of Yorkshire (86), Anglesey (164) and Denbigh (154).

Workers in chalk, clay, sand and gravel (064) number 14,637, and form a national proportion of i per 1,000. The only high proportion—-32 per 1,000—-is found in Cornwall, where they number 3,649 and are mostly engaged in the china clay industry of St. Austell and neighbourhood. Out of the total of 14,637, 66 per cent, are attached industrially to clay, sand, gravel and chalk pits (1:045), 2 per cent, to cement manufacture, lime kilns (1:053,055), 22 per cent, to brick, tile, etc., manufacture (I:o6o) and 3 per cent, to earthenware and china manufacture (1:063) (*ee Table 6, Industry Tables).

Order IV. Workers in the Treatment of Non-Metalliferous Mine and Quarry Products (070-088) number 23,242 males and 1,205 females. They are divided into two sub-orders, makers of coal-gas, coke, etc., 14,820 males and 5 females (all of the females are employers or managers), and makers of other products 8,422 males and 1,200 females. In both sub-orders the largest occupational group is described as "other skilled workers": in the first, this consists of 12,462 males (078) of whom 12-7 per cent, are in the coke oven and by-product industry (1:050), and 81-7 per cent, in the gas industry (I: 510-6). In the second (088) it consists of 5,247 males and 1,134 females; of the males 49 per cent, are makers of concrete and artificial stone (1:051, 054, 056-059), 17 per cent, are salt makers (1:046-049) and 9 per cent, are makers of cement (1:053, ?55); and of the females, 602 are in the first group of industries. Of the kiln men and lime burners (082) who number 1,210, about 75 per cent, are in the cement industry (1:053, 055).

The geographical distribution of the workers in this order is remarkably even, the only counties that have outstanding proportions being Rutland, with 7 per 1,000, and Leicester with 5 per 1,000. Order V. Makers of Bricks, Pottery and Glass. This order consists of 72,076 males and 25,418 females, the latter having a proportion much larger than that in any of the orders so far dealt with. The order is divided into two sub-orders (I) makers of bricks, tiles and pottery, with about two-thirds of the males and four-fifths of the females, and (2) makers of glass and glass ware. The makers of bricks, tiles and pottery form outstanding proportions in Staffordshire (36 per 1,000 males and 32 per 1,000 females over 14) and Huntingdon (24 per 1,000 males), and smaller but still important male proportions in the Soke of Peterborough (13), Bedford (10), Denbigh (10), Derby (8), Flint (8), Dorset (7), Isle of Ely (7), Shropshire (7) and West Sussex (7). In Staffordshire the workers belonging to this sub-order number 18,880 males and 17,335 females, of whom 14,585 males and 14,653 females were enumerated in Stoke-on-Trent County Borough, the proportions being 149 and 137 per 1,000 respectively. About 93 per cent, of these male and 99 per cent, of these female workers are included among the several occupations embraced under pottery making. Industrially (see Industry Tables, page 123) workers connected with pottery making in Stoke form 26 per cent, among males and 64 per cent, among females of the total in employment there.

The makers of glass and glass ware (100-108) are most numerous in the following six counties— MAKERS OF GLASS AND GLASS WARE

  Males Females   Males Females
Lancashire 5,411 603 Total in Six Counties 18,102 3,757
Yorks, West Riding 4,057 538      
London 3,923 911 England and Wales 1931 23,327 4,770
Staffordshire 2,019 807      
Warwick 1,361 532 Percentage in Six Counties 78 79
Middlesex 1,331 366      

Most of the workers are employed industrially in the manufacture of glass bottles (1:065) or other forms of glass ware (1:064). Important centres of the latter industry are St. Helens (Lancashire), and Birmingham (Warwickshire); and of the former St. Helens (Lancashire), Barnsley and Leeds (Wrest Riding) and West Ham (Essex).

Order VI. Workers in Chemical Processes; Makers of Paints, Oils, etc. The first sub-order, workers in chemical processes (110-118) consists of 25,550 males and 3,088 females, and includes workers in a great variety of materials and processes, many of which have little in common. The following ten counties account for 72 per cent, of the national total, for members of each sex.


County Males Females
Lancashire 3,933 504
London 2,534 577
Derby 2,097 150
Durham 1,735 82
Yorks, West Riding 1,603 128
Warwick 1,597 482
Cheshire 1,381 48
Essex 1,355 168
Flint 1,139 39
Stafford 1,021 141

The male workers reach the highest proportions in Flint (27 per 1,000); other counties worthy of mention being Derby (7), Dorset (5), Chester (3), Durham (3), Warwick (3) and the North Riding of Yorkshire (3).

The industries in which chemical workers are numerically important are set out in the following table which covers rather more than 80 per cent, of the males and rather less than 80 per cent, of the females following these occupations in England and Wales.


Industry Code No.   Males Females
070, 073, 079 Manufacture of Alkalis, Heavy Acids, Drugs and Fine Chemicals 9,486 1,128
071 Tar and Wood Distillation 976 -
072 Manufacture of Dyes 961 16
074 Manufacture of Fertilizers, Sheep Dips and Disinfectants 817 45
080-083 Manufacture of Explosives 1,988 441
097 Mineral Oil Refining 557 -
280 Artificial Silk Spinning 3,732 425
281 Silk Throwing, Silk Spinning, Silk (including Artificial Silk) Weaving 2,588 296
  Chemical Workers in the above Industries 21,105 2,351

The development of the artificial silk spinning industry (I:28o) in Flint is remarkable; of the 40,488 persons in employment in that county, 3,559 or 9 per cent, are engaged in this industry. The chief centres of the industry are Flint Municipal Borough and Holywell Rural District. In Stafford and Warwick, the industry is largely concentrated in Wolverhampton and Coventry County Boroughs respectively.

In Lancashire, the numbers engaged in the industry are considerable (2;495 males, and 2,759 females) but their distribution is much more widespread. Silk throwing, spinning and weaving (1:281) are important in Staffordshire, Cheshire, Lancashire and Warwickshire.

Makers of paints, oils (not mineral) etc. (120-128) number 14,046 males and 1,136 females in England and Wales. The distribution is fairly widespread. The six counties with the largest numbers are, in order, Lancashire (2,804 males, 188 females), London (2,128 males, 249 females), the West Riding of Yorkshire (1,247 males, 87 females), Essex (1,190 males, 83 females) Cheshire (883 males, 89 females) and the East Riding.of Yorkshire (771 males, 65 females). The last named county has the highest proportion of males over 14 years of age, 4 per 1,000, and Kingston-upon-Hull County Borough, where most of the work is done, one of 5-6 per 1,000.

Order VII. Metal Workers (not Electro Plate or Precious Metals) (130-238). The workers included in this order number 1,349,774 males and 96, i2ofemales with proportions peri, ooooveri4 years of age of 92 and 6 respectively. Reference to Table A of the Occupation Tables Volume (page 660) shows that the distribution of the males is widespread but very irregular. In the regions it varies from 169 in Midland i to 42 in Wales 2, and in the counties, from 226 in Warwick to 22 in Cardigan. Judged by this standard the chief metal-working counties are Warwick (226), Stafford (190), Worcester (177) and the Soke of Peterborough (131). In Wales, the only county with a proportion over 100 is Carmarthen (123). For females (see Table B of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 664]) the three counties Warwick (48), Stafford (33) and Worcester (31) are in the same order, and have proportions that are more than four times as high as the next following counties: Nottingham (7), the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire and Carmarthen (each 6). They tend to be employed as machine operators in the lighter occupations.

For males, the distributions of a few large selected occupations are shown in Table A of the Occupation Tables Volume (page 660). Furnacemen, puddlers, etc. (140-142), who number 21,641 in England and Wales, form high proportions in Carmarthen (13 per 1,000 males aged 14 and over), Flint (10), Glamorgan and the North Riding of Yorkshire (8), Monmouth and Stafford (6). Metal rollers (144) are most important in the four Welsh counties: Carmarthen (22 per 1,000), Flint (13), Monmouth (12) and Glamorgan (10).

Foundry workers (150-159) number 113,432, and attain high proportions in many counties but especially in Stafford (31 per 1,000), Derby (23), Soke of Peterborough (20), Worcester (19), Warwick (18) and Bedford, Shropshire and the North Riding of Yorkshire (17 each). Smiths are rather less numerous than foundry workers, and have high proportions in Worcester (23), Stafford (17), Durham (14) and Northumberland, Wiltshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire (n), but their distribution is much more even than that of foundry workers. Metal machinists (170), 136,274 in number, show great variations, from 38 per 1,000 in Warwick, 23 in the Soke of Peterborough, 20 in Stafford, 19 in Bedford and 18 in Worcester to less than i per 1,000 in some of the Welsh counties. Erectors, fitters (180), with 176,653, form the largest single occupation shown among the metal workers. They have a national proportion of 12 per 1,000, and a somewhat more even distribution than metal machinists. The proportions range from 28 per 1,000 in the Soke of Peterborough, 22 in Warwick and Wiltshire, 20 in Northumberland and 19 in Durham to 3 in Lincoln, Holland, and West Sussex, 2 in Hereford, and i in Cardigan and Radnor. The highest proportions in the Welsh counties, 10 in Glamorgan and Monmouth, are below the average of England and Wales.

Mechanical engineers, etc. (185), 70,352 in number and 5 per 1,000 in England and Wales, show comparatively little range of variation. The proportion in the North tends to the average of 5 per 1,000, in the London area rather more, and in the rest of the country rather less. The highest proportion, 7 per 1,000, occurs in Bedford, Middlesex and Northumberland. Boiler makers, etc., with their labourers (192, 193) have an all over proportion of only 3 per 1,000, but 15 per 1,000 in Durham, 13 in Northumberland, 10 in the North Riding of Yorkshire and 8 in Devon, Southampton and Wiltshire. Metal grinders, polishers, etc. (205, 206) who number 32,632, show proportions in Warwick (16 per 1,000), in Worcester (9) and Stafford (6) that contrast strongly with thenational proportion (2). These three counties together comprise 41 per cent, of the total. Riveters and their labourers (218, 219) whose national proportion is 2 per 1,000, have proportions of n in Durham, 9 in Northumberland, 5 in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 4 in Wiltshire and 3 in Cheshire and the Isle of Wight. Tinsmiths, sheet metal workers (225), who number 38,732 have proportions of 10 per 1,000 in Warwick, 9 in Worcester and 8 in Oxford. Tool makers (226) form a proportion of 12 per 1,000 in Warwick, with 6,526 or more than one-third of the national total of 18,331.

Metal workers are found in most of the industries (see Industry Tables, Table 6), but naturally in the highest proportions in those grouped together under Order VI, which consists of industries that are engaged directly in the manufacture of metals or of articles made entirely or largely of metal.

Order VIII. Workers in Precious Metals and Electro Plate (240-248) number 23,321 males and 11,511 females. The most important occupations are electro and nickel platers (242), 4,317 males, 1,904 females; goldsmiths and gem setters (244), 4,446 males, 805 females; polishers and scratch brushers (245), 2,667 males, 5,922 females, and silver and white metal smiths and mounters (247), 4,852 males, 795 females.

Taken as a whole, the order has declined numerically since 1921 by about 20 per cent., the greatest reduction being among goldsmiths and gem setters (41 per cent, males, 57 per cent, females). The only occupation showing large increase is that of electro and nickel platers (242) with 54 and 49 per cent, respectively for males and females.

Males form proportions of 15 per 1,000 in Warwick, 3 in Middlesex and the West Riding of Yorkshire and 2 in London, Stafford and Worcester, these six counties together including 86 per cent, of the whole. The same counties include 93 per cent, of the total of females, but the only outstanding proportion is 8 per 1,000 in Warwick. About 72 per cent, of the males and 73 per cent, of the females who follow these occupations are attached to the industries included under the heading "Manufacture of precious metals, jewellery and plate" (1:250-259).

Order IX. Electrical Apparatus Makers and Fitters (Not Elsewhere Enumerated) and Electricians (250-269). Of the 214,579 persons assigned to this order, 186,134 (87 per cent.) are males and 28,445 (13 per cent.) are females. The largest occupation distinguished is that of electrical engineers and fitters, electricians and wiremen (261) which consists of 110,890 males and 612 females; the next being linemen and cable jointers (268) numbering 25,616 males, 254 females. The chief occupations followed by women are instrument makers and assemblers (260), 8,871, coil winders (253), 5,687, inspectors, viewers and testers (259), 3,249, insulated cable and wire machine assistants (256), 2,100 and electric lamp and valve-stemmers, sealers and exhausters (257), 1,192. The last is very largely a female occupation, only 144 males being assigned to it.

As compared with 1921, (see Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 675]) the all-over increase is 47 per cent, for males and 112 per cent, for females. For males, large increases occur among accumulator makers and pasters (252) 173 per cent., instrument makers and assemblers (260) 98 per cent, and foremen and overlookers (251) 91 per cent. For females the increases are much greater, especially among accumulator makers, etc. (252) and instrument makers,etc. (260), in which there are respectively 9½ and 4½ times as many occupied in 1931 as in 1921.

The distribution of males (see Table A of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 660]) is widespread and in only two counties does the proportion per 1,000 approach twice the national average of 13—namely Middlesex 24, and Warwick 22. Females, with an average of 2 per 1,000, have proportions in three counties which are more than twice this figure—Warwick 7, Cambridge 5, Middlesex 5.

Order X. Makers of Watches, Clocks and Scientific Instruments, (270-278) form a small order consisting of 20,711 males and 1,568 females. The largest occupation, that of watch, clock and chronometer makers and repairers (273) numbers 12,391 males and 321 females; the next is that of scientific instrument makers and repairers (272) with 5,748 males and 823 females. In general the workers are widely scattered, and most counties have a male proportion of i per 1,000, which is also the average. Exceptional proportions occur in Cambridge (4 per 1,000, mostly scientific instrument makers) and in London and Middlesex (3 per 1,000, scientific instrument makers somewhat in excess of watch and clock makers). The female proportion nowhere exceeds 0-5 per 1,000.

The numbers of watch and clock makers and repairers (273) have decreased by 16 per cent. since 1921, and the scientific instrument makers and repairers (272) have increased by only 4 per cent., the net change in the entire order being a decrease of 14 per cent.

Order XI. Workers in Skins and Leather, and Makers of Leather and Leather Substitute Goods (not boots or shoes) (280-298) . This order which includes 46,841 males and 24,049 females, is divided into two sub-orders. The first consists of 26,382 males and 9,780 females, who are occupied as furriers, skinners, tanners and leather dressers (280-288). The numbers are 6 per cent, among males and 22 per cent, among females greater than in 1921. The male members of the sub-order form a proportion of 2 per 1,000 in England and Wales; of 18 in Northampton, of 5 in London and of 4 in Somerset. Although the proportion in Northampton is so high, the number enumerated (2,108) is much less than that in London (7,413), Lancashire (3,251) or the West Riding of Yorkshire (2,385). The five London Boroughs of Stepney (1,511), Hackney (1,174), Bermondsey (905), Islington (531) and Camberwell (449) together include rather more than 60 per cent, of the county total. In only one of the occupations distinguished—furriers, fur sewers and machinists (282)—does the number of females (6,102) in England and Wales exceed that of males (5,183). 90 per cent, of the males and 86 per cent, of the females in this sub-order are attached to the tanning, currying, fellmongering, leather and fur dressing industries (1:330-332).

The second sub-order is described as makers of leather and leather substitute goods (not boots or shoes) (290-298) and numbers 20,459 males and 14,269 females. The averages per 1,000 for England and Wales are respectively males 1-4, females 0-9. The male distribution is very even compared with that of the first sub-order, and reaches 3 per 1,000 in only two counties, namely London and Stafford. In common with the first sub-order, a fall in the numbers of males (19 per cent.) since 1921 has been accompanied by a rise in the numbers of females (23 per cent.); makers of bags and trunks (295) being specially noticeable in this respect; the males having fallen by 12 per cent, and the females risen by 95 per cent.

Order XII. Textile Workers (300-338) . This order consists of 875,646 persons of whom 301,552 or rather more than one-third are males and 574,094 or rather less than two-thirds are females. The change in numbers between 1921 and 1931 is not large but its direction has been similar to that observed in Order XI, namely a decrease in males (i per cent.) and an increase in females (3 per cent.). These are merely the resultants of a number of movements, many of which are of considerable size; thus among males considerable increases occur in hosiery frame tenters, etc., (322) 51 per cent., foremen of winding, warping, etc., (305) 16 per cent., and lookers and examiners, etc., (326) 13 per cent.; and decreases in rag and wool carbonisers, etc., (311) 24 per cent., sizers, etc., (319) 20 per cent., lace machine tenters, etc., (324) 38 percent, andscollopers, etc., (330) 63 per cent.

Among females note worthy increases occur in hosiery frame tenters etc., (322) 37 per cent., doublers and doubling frame tenters, etc., (316)26 percent., and winders, reelers.etc., (317) 12 percent.; and decreases in hand knitters (323) 59 per cent., scollopers, clippers, etc., (330) 46 per cent., weavers (320) 7 per cent., and spinners and piecers (315) 6 per cent, (see Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 673]).

A summary of the textile workers in the counties and occupations in which they are most numerous is given in Table LX. For fuller details the Occupation Tables may be consulted. The nine counties included in Table LX, together comprise 95 per cent, of all the textile workers. The proportions per 1,000 in these counties vary from 3 in Warwick to 78 in Lancaster for males, and from 14 in Stafford to 138 in Lancaster for females; the national proportions being 21 and 35 respectively. The relative proportions by sex assigned to each occupation vary very widely (see Table 16 of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 154]. In England and Wales males predominate in employers and managers (300), in superintending staff (301-309), wool-sorters (310), breakers, rag grinders, etc., (312), strippers and grinders, etc., (314) and dyers (328); while in card, comb and frame tenters, etc., (313), doublers, etc. (316), winders, etc. (317), weavers (320), hosiery frame tenters, etc. (322), lookers and examiners, etc. (326), women are much larger in number than men. These variations are reproduced in varying degrees in the counties and other areas shown in Table 16 of the Occupation Tables Volume (page 154).

The industrial distribution of the textile workers is given in Table 6 of the Industry Tables Volume. The approximate numbers attached to the more important industries shown in the following table cover about 93 per cent, of the males and 95 per cent, of the females.

Industry Code No.   Textile Workers
Males % of Total Females % of Total
260,261 Cotton carding, spinning, etc. 60,188 20.0 105,692 18.0
262 Cotton weaving 80,815 27.0 210,228 37.0
270-279 Manufacture of wool, worsted and shoddy 64,655 21.0 114,398 20.0
280 Artificial silk spinning 575 0.2 6,070 1.1
281 Silk throwing, spinning, weaving 8,113 3.0 21,507 4.0
310 Manufacture of hosiery and other knitted goods 16,847 6.0 56,801 10.0
311 Lace manufacture 4,190 1.4 6,623 1.2
312 Manufacture of carpets and rugs 4,572 1.5 8,746 1.5
320-323 Textile bleaching, printing, dyeing, finishing 40,260 13.0 10,371 1.8

The great importance of the cotton industries (1:260-269) in Lancashire is shown by the proportions engaged therein; of the males returned as being employed, 9.4 per cent, and of the females 27-8 are engaged in these industries (see Industry Tables, page 355). The comparable figures for the woollen industries (1:270-279) in the West Riding of Yorkshire are 7.4 per cent, for males and 22.3 per cent, for females (page 439). In Leicestershire the industries grouped under the heading "hosiery and other knitted goods" (1:310) yield percentages of 7.8 for males and 35.6 for females (page 76).

Order XIII. Makers of Textile Goods and Articles of Dress (340-368) form a group comparable in size with that of textile workers: they number 276,738 males and 542,809 females, and form proportions in England and Wales of 19 and 33 per 1,000, respectively. But whereas textile workers are employed typically in factories, many of the workers included in the present order follow occupations in which the work is done singly or in comparatively small groups. Thus tailors, etc., (344), dress and blouse makers (345), milliners (348), boot andshoe makers and repairers (352), who usually work in such groups, in direct contact with their customers, tend to have a geographical distribution in rough proportion to the numbers of the population. On the other hand, glove makers, etc., (351) and boot and shoe factory operatives (353, 354 and 355) work in large units and have a very unequal distribution. The occurrence of a high local proportion (see Tables A or B of the Occupation Tables Volume [pp. 660 to 667]), in an occupation which normally belongs to the former type, usually indicates that factory work has been developed in the area concerned. Thus, among males, the high proportion of tailors in London (15 per 1,000, as compared with 5 for England and Wales) or among females, the high proportion of milliners in Bedfordshire (49 per 1,000 as compared with the national figure of i per 1,000) show that the organisation of the occupations in these areas differs to some extent from that usually found.

Table LXI, summarises some of the locally salient features of certain of the occupations included in the order and brings out the relative importance of tailors in London, Northampton and the West Riding of Yorkshire, of dress and blouse makers in London, of milliners and hat formers, etc., in Bedfordshire, and of boot and shoe makers in Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Norfolk and Westmorland.


The correspondence between the occupational and industrial grouping of the persons in this order is much closer than in some of the other orders. While metal workers or clerks for example are spread over many industries, a large proportion of the workers in these occupations belong to one industry. Thus, of 68,886 male and 136,907 female tailors, etc., (344) 96 per cent, are in the tailoring industries (1:340, 341): of the 115,793 female dress and blouse makers (345) 103,239 or 89 per cent, are in the dress,etc., making industries (1:342, 343); and of the 60,936 male boot and shoe makers, etc. (352), 95 per cent, are in the boot and shoe, etc., industries (1:353, 354).


Order XIV. Makers of Food, Drinks and Tobacco (370-408) togetherform anorderof 167,989 males and 74,888 females, and proportions of n and 5 respectively per 1,000 over 14 years of age. Of the four sub-orders into which the order is divided, the first, makers of foods (370-378) is by far the largest, and includes 84 per cent, of the males and 74 per cent, of the females. The national male average of this sub-order is 10 per thousand over 14; among the counties, the rate varies within the limits of 16 (in Berkshire and West Suffolk) and 4 (in Durham). Of the 62 counties shown (See Tables A and B of Occupation Tables), the proportions in only 23 fall outside the range of 8 and 12 per 1,000. The occupation of greatest numerical importance is that of bakers and pastrycooks including biscuit makers (373) who number 78,114 males (5 per 1,000) and 26,079 females. High proportions of males occur in Berkshire (n per 1,000), Rutland and the Isle of Wight (10 each); and of females in Cumberland, Lancashire (where they number 9,826 and exceed the males by 9 per cent.) and Westmorland. Industrially, 90 per cent, of the males in this occupation and 88 per cent, of the females belong to the making of bread, flour, confectionery and biscuits industries (1:364, 365, Industry Table, pages 634.).

Makers of drinks (380-398), who constitute the second and third sub-orders, number 22,237 males and 4,775 females, and have a distribution generally similar to that of makers of foods. In most counties the male proportion is i or 2 per 1,000, but it rises to 4 in Hertford and (Lincoln) Kesteven. Males predominate largely in all the occupations except that of beer-bottling (384) in which females are more than twice as numerous as males (3,607 females to 1,772 males).

Makers of drinks, which in 1921 constituted a single sub-order, are in 1931 divided into two, namely, makers of alcoholic drinks (380-388) and makers of non-alcoholic drinks (390-398). This division and the transfer of the large number of unskilled workers to a separate heading (940) makes comparison of the figures for 1921 and 1931 a matter of some difficulty. If the numbers of male maltsters (382)— 3,028 in 1921, 2,995 in 1931, can be taken as an index to the change in the numbers of persons making alcoholic drinks, there is little difference. The industrial classification provides evidence on a much larger scale. In 1921 the number of persons attached to the malting, brewing and distilling industries (1:380, 381, 383) was 90,401. In 1931, the corresponding number is 86,395, but this includes 7,857 persons stated to be out of work (see Industry Tables, page 716, and pags> 5). Although the number of persons who were out of work in 1921 is unknown, it is not likely to be as large as this. It appears, therefore, that the numerical strength of the alcoholic drink industries experienced some decrease in the ten years 1921-1931.

Makers of tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff (400-408) form the fourth sub-order. They number 5,389 males and 14,543 females and show a reduction of about 10 per cent, as compared with 1921. The distribution is very uneven; the following seven counties accounting for 83 per cent. of the males and 84 per cent, of the females:—Essex (372 males, 735 females); Gloucester 966 males, 3,082 females, nearly all in Bristol County Borough); London (1,270 males, 3,400 males); Nottingham (841 males, 1,596 females, 80 per cent, of the total in Nottingham County Borough); Wiltshire (135 males, 396 females, mostly in Swindon); Middlesex (205 males, 163 males); Lancashire (660 males, 2,801 females, mostly in Liverpool and Manchester). Of the total workers enumerated, 95 per cent, of the males and 99 per cent, of the females are stated to belong to the tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff industries (1:390, Industry Tables page 640).

Order XV. Workers in Wood and Furniture (410-438) form a group of occupations in which (males, on the whole, are numerically unimportant, there being only 19,734 females to 500,632 males. The only occupations in which females reach four figures are basket making (412), packing case making (417), wood turning and machining (425), and upholstering, coach trimming 438), in the last of which they number 11,132.

The most prominent male occupations are cabinet makers, (413) 45,707; carpenters (414), 246,807; coach, etc., builders (415), 26,751; wood turners and machinists (425), 35, 665 and upholsterers, etc. (438), 29,250.

Workers in wood, who form the first sub-order (410-428) have an average proportion of 32 per 1,000 in England and Wales; it rises to 89 per 1,000 in Buckinghamshire, but, apart from this, the highest figure, 42, occurs in Middlesex, Oxford, East Suffolk, Warwick and the Isle of Wight, Among the English counties, the lowest proportion, 22, is found in the Isle of Ely and Lincoln, Holland, whilst in Wales, the range is from 30 in Anglesey to 14 in Monmouth.

Upholsterers, etc. (the second sub-order 430-438) have a proportion of 12 per 1,000 in Buckinghamshire, and, in general, tend to a distribution similar to that of wood workers.

The male increase over the entire order between 1921 and 1931 is 13 per cent., in per cent, for workers in wood, and 50 per cent, for upholsterers, etc. As female upholsterers also show a large ncrease (of 41 per cent.) there seems to be evidence that the standard of comfort has risen considerably in the decade.

Male workers in wood, etc., (410-438) are distributed over a large number of industries, of which the following (together covering 73 per cent, of the total) are the most important:

Industry Code No. Industry Number of Males Percentage of Total
030 Coal mines 6,253 1.2
154, 155 Manufacture of textile machinery 3,124 0.6
180-183 Building and repairing of rolling stock 10,375 2.1
184-186 Manufacture of self-propelled road vehicles 14,021 2.8
187,188 Building of carriages, coach and motor-car bodies, carts, vans, etc. 23,925 4.8
200-209 Shipbuilding and repairing 13,804 2.8
400 Saw mills and joinery works 26,789 5.4
402 Cooperages 2,754 0.6
403 Manufacture of wooden boxes, etc. 6,134 1.2
401, 404-409 Other woodworking industries (not forniture) and basket making 42,699 8.5
410 Cabinet and furniture making and upholstering 73,350 14.7
412 Manufacture of house and shop fitting (not elsewhere enumerated), shop fitting 10,229 2.0
460-469 Building, decorating, stone and slate cutting, etc. 131,529 26.3

Order XVI. Makers of and Workers in Paper and Cardboard; Bookbinders, etc. (440-458). This order, which includes 37,427 males and 63,994 females, is made up of two sub-orders (I) makers of paper and cardboard (440-448) who number 13,923 males and 5,509 females and (2) makers of stationery and cardboard boxes, bookbinders and other workers in paper (450-458) who number 23,504 males and 58,485 females. The first sub-order, in which the males are about two and a half times as numerous as the females, has a male proportion of 9 per 1,000 in Kent and 2 per 1,000 in Lancashire, the numbers being 3,867 and 2,936 respectively. Other counties have fairly high proportions, e.g., Westmorland 6, Buckingham 4, Hertford 3 and Flint 3, but the numbers are relatively small. In Kent the most noteworthy areas are those about Sittingbourne, Maidstone, Northfleet, Gravesend and Dartford. The numbers assigned to this sub-order are about 20 per cent, higher in 1931 than in 1921.

The second sub-order has a much less uneven distribution than the first. With an average male proportion of 2 per 1,000, the highest county proportion is 6 in Hertford, followed by 4 in London and 3 in Bedford, Essex, Gloucester, Leicester, Middlesex and Nottingham. Females are two and a half times as numerous as males, and have a national average of about 4 per 1,000. For the most part, their proportions are high in the same counties as the males. The increase recorded for the sub-order between 1921 and 1931 is 24 per cent, for males and 25 per cent, for females: and increase is found in both sexes of all occupations except that of bookbinders, the male portion of which shows a decrease of 8 per cent.

The industry entitled paper and board making, coating, enamelling (1:420) absorbs about 92 per cent, of the males and 87 per cent, of the females in the first sub-order. Two groups of industries include the bulk of the workers in the second sub-order: the manufacture of other articles of paper (1:431-3, 439), 31 per cent, of the males and 51 per cent, of the females; and printing, bookbinding and photography (1:440-459), a further 50 per cent, of males and 18 per cent, of females.

Order XVII. Printers and Photographers (460-478) form an order consisting of 152,288 males and 37,958 females. In most of the occupations distinguished, the males are largely in excess of the females: in only one are the females in a majority, that of letterpress or lithographic printing machine assistants (469), their excess being 13 per cent.

A comparison with 1921 (see Table G of the Occupation Table Volume [page 676]) shows an overall male increase of 20 per cent, and a female increase of 12 per cent. Among males, the most noteworthy change is in the relative numbers of hand and machine compositors (462 and 463); while the former have decreased by 8,082 or 29 per cent., the latter have increased by 12,375 or 215 per cent.; and, in addition, there are an unknown number of type casting machine operators included among stcreotypers and clectrotypers (464), an occupation in which an increase of 44 per cent, is recorded. Among the other occupations process engravers (465) have increased by 81 per cent., wall paper printers (473) by 63 per cent., letterpress or litho printing machine assistants (469) by 39 per cent, and the minders and setters of such machines (468) by 29 per cent. Among females, the two last-named occupations (469 and 468) have increased by 24 and 70 per cent, respectively; and there is a large increase (of 112 per cent.) in forewomen and overlookers (461) which contrasts with a male increase of only 16 per cent. The change in the methods of type-composition is reflected in the relative numbers of women occupied in hand and machine work, but the numbers are not large, and, taken together, show a decrease from 960 to 749, or 22 per cent.

The highest proportions among males occur in London and the adjacent counties: thus Hertford 26 per 1,000, London 21, Middlesex 19, Surrey 18 and Essex 17. These five counties comprise 66,666 males and 12,976 females or 44 and 34 per cent, respectively of the workers included in the order. Considerable numbers, but lower proportions are recorded for Gloucester, 14 per 1,000, Kent u, Lancashire 10, Warwick 9 and the West Riding of Yorkshire 7. The average proportion in England and Wales is 10 per 1,000.

The printing, bookbinding and photographic industries (1:440-459) absorb 88 per cent of the males and 76 per cent, of the females in the order.

Order XVIII. Builders, Bricklayers, Stone and Slate Workers; Contractors (480-499) form an order of 692,123 males and 775 females. The females are relatively few and may be ignored.

The numbers in the order show a substantial increase (of 37-5 per cent.) over those of 1921. Of the more important occupations, considerable increases are shown for employers and managers (480) 48 per cent., foremen and gangers (481) 51 per cent., builders' labourers (483) 40 per cent., plasterers (486) 67 per cent, and plasterers' labourers (487) 75 per cent. Bricklayers (484) have increased by 35 per cent, but their labourers have decreased by 19 per cent., the net increase in the two occupations taken together being 14 per cent. The relative movements in the numbers of bricklayers and their labourers seem to suggest some change in their method of working, a change not shared by plasterers, whose labourers show a greater increase than their own. Masons, etc. (490) and masons' labourers (491) exhibit movements similar to those of bricklayers and their labourers, but the percentages are smaller.

The geographical distribution of the workers in this order is remarkably even, the average being 47 per 1,000, and, in the English counties, the range being between 69 in Rutland and 67 in West Sussex and 39 in Lancashire and Northumberland, that is to say from 47 per cent, above, to 17 per cent, below, the mean. In the Welsh counties the range is much wider and extends from 107 in Merioneth and 105 in Caernarvon to 36 in Glamorgan and Monmouth. The high figures in Merioneth and Caernarvon are due chiefly to the extensive development of slate quarrying.

The building, decorating, stone and slate cutting, etc., industries (1:460-9) employ 59 per cent. of the workers in the order, the remainder being scattered over many other industries.

Order XIX. Painters and Decorators (500-518) number 261,145 males and 36,091 females and show increases over the corresponding numbers in 1921 of 23 and 41 per cent, respectively. The occupations having the largest increases are japanners and enamellers of metal (504) males 49 per cent., females 14 per cent., pottery dippers and glazers (506) males 46 per cent., females 56 per cent, and french polishers (503) males 42 per cent., females 51 per cent. Most of the male workers in the order—203,759 or 78 per cent.—fall into the occupations grouped as other painters and decorators (518): the corresponding percentage for females (7) shows that few of them are engaged on the same kinds of work as the majority of the male workers.

Females are in excess of males among aerographers and paint sprayers (502), japanners and enamellers of metal (504), pottery dippers and glazers (506), and pottery painters and decorators (507). In the last-named occupation females number 16,483 out of a total of 17,294, or 95 per cent. On the other hand the males among sign-writers (508) number 5,513 out of a total of 5,691, or 97 per cent., and among french polishers (503) are more than three times as numerous as females, and predominate among employers and managers (500), foremen and overlookers (501) and paperhangers (505).

The average male proportion of 18 per 1,000 in England and Wales compares with 31 in Buckingham, 28 in London, Middlesex and East Sussex; 9 in Cornwall and 8 in the Isle of Ely and Lincoln, Holland. In the Welsh counties the extremes are 12 in Caernarvon and 6 in Brecknock, Montgomery and Pembroke.

Of the french polishers (503) 61 per cent, of the males, and 57 per cent, of the females work in the cabinet and furniture making and upholstering industries (1:410). Pottery dippers and glazers (506) and pottery painters and decorators (507), to the extent of 97 per cent., are attached to the earthenware, china, porcelain, etc., industries, (1:063) and mostly live in Staffordshire. Of the 203,759 male painters and decorators (518) 143,849 or 71 per cent., are members of the building, decorating, etc., industries (1:460-9).

Order XX. Workers in Other Materials (520-548) form an order consisting of 29,666 males and 19,071 females, who work in a large variety of materials. Of these, the workers in rubber (520-528) are the most important, numbering 17,020 males and 9,851 females, or 57 and 52 per cent, respectively of the totals in the order. The male proportion of rubber workers per 1,000, which is I for England and Wales as a whole, is 2 in Middlesex and Stafford and 3 in Lancashire and Leicestershire and rises to 5 in Warwick and 9 in Wiltshire. These counties, together with London, account for 13,547 (80 per cent.) of the males and 8,082 (82 per cent.) of the females. Numerically, Lancashire, with 5,757 males and 3,982 females, occupies the first place, followed by Warwickshire 2,576 males, 1,686 females and London 1,358 males, 945 females.

The national totals of rubber workers show an increase of 16 per cent, among males and 19 per cent, among females as compared with the figures of 1921. Most rubber workers (males 86 per cent., females 87 per cent.) are associated industrially with the industries grouped under the heading, manufacture of rubber goods (1:470-1). This heading includes rubber boots and shoes, tyres, etc., but excludes rubber clothing and belting.

Order XXI. Workers in Mixed or Undefined Materials (Not Elsewhere Enumerated) (550-588) together number 66,836 males and 14,801 females. The order is divided into four sub-orders, of which the best defined is the first, makers of musical instruments (not piano, etc. case makers) (550-558), to which 13,397 males and 1,232 females are assigned. Sub-orders two and three are respectively makers of vehicles (560-568) and builders of ships and boats (570-578) who are returned neither as metal or wood-workers. The fourth sub-order, makers of other products (580-588), includes dental mechanics (582), other surgical or dental instrument and appliance makers (583) and a host of diverse occupations (see Classification of Occupations, page 75) none of which is of much numerical importance.

The first, second and fourth sub-orders have increased somewhat since 1921, but the third, builders of ships and boats, has decreased by more than 50 per cent, (see Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 677]). Much of this decrease is doubtless genuine, but some appears to be due to a greater exactness in the description of occupation leading to assignment to other headings.

Of the makers of musical instruments, 49 per cent, of the males and 81 per cent, of the females, were enumerated in three counties—London, Middlesex and Essex. Males form 92 per cent, of the sub-order as a whole; and one occupation therein, that of piano tuner, is almost exclusively followed by males, who number 5,382 as against 14 females. Among makers of vehicles and ships, the proportion of males is even greater than among makers of musical instruments.

Ship and boat builders (570-578) form male proportions of 3 per 1,000 in Cornwall, Southampton and Pembroke, 4 in Durham, Northumberland and the East Riding of Yorkshire, and 7 in the Isle of Wight.

Order XXII. Persons Employed in Transport and Communication (590-669) form a large order comprising 1,565,846 males and 68,899 females. It is divided into four sub-orders, (I) railway transport workers (590-609), (2) road transport workers (610-629), (j) water transport workers (630-649) and (4) other workers in transport and communication (650-669). In the first three sub-orders females are very small in numbers: in the last, they are about 15 per cent, of the total.

Comparison of the numbers of males for 1921 and 1931 shows (Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 677]) that railway workers have decreased by 14 per cent, and water transport workers by 2 per cent., while road transport workers have increased by 29 per cent. Among railway workers decrease is recorded in each occupation distinguished, the range being from 4 per cent, for shunters, pointsmen, etc., (597) to about 23 per cent, for officials, station-masters, etc., (590). Evidence of the decline in horse transport is abundant: thus, livery stable proprietors and managers (611) have decreased by 65 per cent., drivers of coaches, horse omnibuses, etc., (615) by 72 per cent., drivers of horse-drawn lorries, vans, etc., (616) by 31 per cent. and horse foremen, grooms, etc., (622) by 30 per cent. On the other hand there have been large increases in the numbers of workers engaged in motor transport: thus, motor garage proprietors and managers (612) have increased by 99 per cent., drivers of self-propelled vehicles (617, 618) by 129 per cent., and omnibus and train conductors (621) by 112 per cent. As the numbers of tram drivers (619) show a slight decrease, it may be inferred that the increase in 621 is among conductors of omnibuses.

The geographical distribution of the several sub-orders presents a few points of interest. Male railway transport workers, whose mean proportion in England and Wales is 18 per i,opo males over 14, have a somewhat extended range of variation. A proportion of 92—five times the mean —occurs in the Soke of Peterborough; the next highest rates are 48 in the Isle of Ely, 36 in Cumberland and 32 in Monmouth. At the other end of the scale are 8 per 1,000 in W7est Suffolk, 10 in the Isle of Wight, Southampton, West Sussex and Cardigan, and n in Bedford, Dorset and Surrey. Among road transport workers, the range is much less; with a national mean of 47 per 1,000 males over 14, -the county proportions vary from 70 in London, 61 in Rutland and 60 in Berkshire and West Suffolk to 28 in Montgomery, 27 in Brecknock, Monmouth and Pembroke, and 26 in Carmarthen. The lowest proportion in the English counties is 29 in the Isle of Ely. Water transport workers, whose national proportion—18 per 1,000—is the same as that of railway workers, have county proportions that differ very widely, not merely as between maritime and non-maritime counties, but between maritime counties among themselves. The highest proportion, 99, occurs in the East Riding of Yorkshire; this is followed by 66 in Anglesey, 59 in Pembroke, 55 in Lincoln, Lindsey, 38 in Essex, 37 in Glamorgan and 36 in Southampton. Coastal counties that have comparatively low proportions are Cumberland (9), Somerset (5), East Sussex (7) and Merioneth (4).

The decrease in the numbers in many of the occupations grouped under water transport workers is probably due largely to the general depression existing in 1931. Especially noticeable are the decreases in wharfingers and master stevedores (632)—19 per cent., petty officers, seamen and deck hands (635)—12 per cent., and bargemen and boatmen (639)—10 per cent. The most important increase is among engineering officers (634)—8 per cent. The proportionate increase of lock keepers, bridge, etc., men (642) is much larger—26 per cent.—but the number in the occupation is much less.

Among other male workers in transport arid communication a decrease of 5-5 per cent, in other telegraph operators (655) contrasts with an increase of 35 per cent, in telephone operators (656). Lift attendants (657) have increased by 18 per cent, and messengers (658) by 17 per cent. The increase in postmen and post office sorters (653) of 15 per cent, is concurrent with a decrease among females in the same occupation of 50 per cent.; but the number of males (69,906) is enormously greater than the number of females (1,512). Of the two large female occupations in the sub-order, one, that of telephone operators (656) had an increase of 41 per cent., and the other, that of messenger (658), a decrease of 21 per cent. Aviators (652) increased from 417 to 457 or 10 per cent. This heading excludes aviators who belong to the Royal Air Eorce (764, 765).

Other workers in transport and communication have a local range of variation that on the whole departs less from the mean (24) than either railway or water transport workers. Apart from London, where they have a proportion of 50 per 1,000, the highest rates are 34 in Essex and 33 in Middlesex; the lowest in the English counties are 12 in Derbyshire and Staffordshire and 13 in Durham and Northampton. The very low rate of 9 per 1,000 is found in Carmarthen.

The county distributions of certain of the more important occupations included in the order are set out in Tables A and B of the Occupation Tables Volume.

Order XXIII. Commercial, Finance and Insurance Occupations (Excluding Clerks) form Ian order consisting of 1,466,587 males and 604,833 females, or n-i and 10-8 per cent, respectively lot' the occupied population over 14 years of age. As compared with 1921 (see Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 678]) there is an all-over increase in numbers of 37 per cent, of males and 20 per cent, of females. With only one exception, that of money lenders and pawnbrokers (737), all of the male occupations show increases, the largest being among canvassers ((193), from 4,300 in 1921 to 27,340 in 1931---or more than sixfold—and roundsmen and van salesmen (720)—from 32,280 in 1921 to 83,214 in 1931—between two and threefold. Increases on much lower scale are recorded for newspaper sellers (722)—61 per cent.; bankers and bank officials (731)—57 per cent.; costermongers and hawkers (721)—52 per cent.; advertising agents (723)—51 per cent.; commercial travellers (692)—48 per cent.; salesmen and shop assistants (700-719)—46 per cent, and insurance agents, etc., (735)—44 per cent. Among female canvassers (693) the increase is more than fourfold (from 1,577 m iQ21 to 6,784 in 1931). Other female occupations showing substantial increases are buyers (691)—56 per cent.; proprietors andmanagers of businesses (670-689)—26 per cent.; and brokers, agents, etc., (690)—23 per cent. On the other hand female commercial travellers (692) show little change in numbers, and reductions are recorded among roundswomen, etc., (720)—14 per cent.; and insurance agents, etc., (735)—41 per cent.


In the Occupation Tables for 1931, the proprietors and managers of the more important retail businesses and the assistants engaged therein are classified according to the commodity sold. Table LXII provides in summary form information as to certain general aspects of these businesses. The number of persons who are described respectively as proprietors and managers and as shop assistants are given in columns (2) and (3) and the number of assistants per 100 proprietors in column (4). The average is 140 and the range extends from 10 in coal businesses to 239 in textile and other clothing businesses. The sex-ratios of proprietors and assistants in columns (5) and (6) show similar diversity. Among proprietors, 4 females per 100 males are found in coal businesses, 7 in those retailing meat and 9 in businesses dealing in drugs and druggists' sundries, as compared with 160 in sweet shops and 101 in general and mixed businesses. Among shop assistants, females are relatively scarce in coal and meat businesses, numerous in businesses retailing tobacco, textiles, boots and shoes, and are in a proportion of nearly 10 to i in sweet shops.

In wholesale businesses the female proprietors etc., form only 3 per cent, of the total, and the female assistants 19 per cent.

In all the occupations that form the second sub-order in Order XXIII—Persons employed in finance and insurance (730-739)—males predominate, and in some of them, bankers and bank officials (731), stockbrokers (732) and stock jobbers (733), to the virtual exclusion of females.

Among insurance officials (734) women are 4 per cent., and among insurance agents, etc., (735) 3 per cent.

The local distribution of the members of the order (see Tables A and B of the Occupation Tables Volume [pp. 661 and 665]) is widespread and shows no remarkable extremes. Among males, the proportion has an average of 100 per 1,000 of 14 and over, and ranges from 144 in Middlesex and 139 in Surrey to 66 in Durham and Brecknock and 63 in Carmarthen. Among females the average is 37 and the range from 48 in Northumberland to 21 in Radnor.

Order XXIV. Persons Employed in Public Administration and Defence (Excluding Professional men, Clerical Staff and Typists) are divided into two sub-orders: (I) public administration (740-751) consisting of civil servants, the officials of local authorities, and the police, and (2) defence (760-765) consisting of officers and men of the Navy, Army and Royal Air Force.

The male members of the first sub-order have an average national proportion of 7 per 1,000 over 14 years of age. Large proportions are found in London (13) and in the home counties: Middlesex (13), Surrey (14), Hertford (10), Essex (9), and Kent (9). The high proportions in these areas are due to the presence of civil servants (740, 741) many of whom naturally live in and about London; the six counties just named account for about half of the national total.

It maybe noted that clerks andmanual workers etc., employed in the civil and local government services are assigned to their appropriate headings and are not included in Order XXIV. The numbers of persons employed in these services together with information regarding their occupations are given in the Industry Tables, Table 6 (code numbers 710-729).

Owing to changes in classification (see Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 679]) none of the several occupations grouped under public administration in 1931 are comparable with those of 1921.

In the second sub-order, defence, the total numbers—204,774 in 1921 and 180,931 in 1931— show a decrease of nearly 12 per cent. In the first three occupations in the sub-order, naval officers (760), other naval ratings (761) and army officers (762), the decreases are respectively 24,33, and 20 per cent.; while in the remaining three occupations, army ranks other than officers (763), airmen officers (764) and airmen, other ranks (765), there are increases of 2, 31 and 22 per cent. respectively. Naval officers and men have large proportions in Devon (54 per 1,000 of 14 and over), chiefly in Plymouth, Southampton 51, (chiefly in Portsmouth), Dorset 31, (chiefly in Portland), Kent (24) and East Suffolk (12). In these five counties 48,932 naval men out of a national total of 57,132, or 86 per cent., were enumerated. These numbers exclude men serving on foreign stations at the time of the Census, and given in Appendix B of the General Tables.

Army officers and men, whose national proportion is 7 per 1,000 males over 14, have high rates in Southampton (71), Wiltshire (53), the North Riding of Yorkshire (46), Dorset (32), the Isle of Wight (21) and Kent (20). The distribution is more widespread than that of naval men, and the six counties just named comprise only about 53 per cent, of the total.

The members of the air force, whose total is 22,105, form proportions of 63 per 1,000 in Lincoln, Kesteven, 35 in Buckingham, 16 in Bedford, n in the Soke of Peterborough and Flint, 9 in Wiltshire, 8 in East Suffolk and 7 in Lincoln, Holland, Oxford and Southampton; these counties together accounting for 13,675 or 62 per cent, of the entire number.

Order XXV. Professional Occupations (Excluding Clerical Staff) form an order consisting of 356,726 males and 389,359 females. Several of the headings have been subject to changes in classification, and the numbers shown are not comparable with those of 1921 (see Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 679]). Of the headings that are properly comparable for 1921 and 1931, the largest increases among males have occurred among social welfare workers (824)—216 per cent., librarians (821)-—no per cent., laboratory attendants (817)—109 per cent., chartered and other accountants (815)—92 per cent., and sick nurses (794)—83 per cent. Moderate increases are recorded among Roman Catholic priests (771)—27 per cent., church, etc., officials (774)—25 per cent., medical practitioners (796)—15 per cent., dental practitioners (791)—24 per cent., teachers (800)—15 per cent., analytical chemists (816)—39 per cent., authors, editors, journalists (820)—41 per cent, and painters, sculptors, etc., (825)—26 per cent. Decreases have occurred among Anglican clergymen (770)—9 per cent., ship designers, etc., (814)—19 per cent., and industrial and trade association officials (823)—n per cent. Among females, there are large increases in the numbers of medical practitioners (790)—124 per cent., laboratory attendants (817)—81 per cent., librarians (821)—313 per cent., and social welfare workers (824)—82 per cent. Solicitors have increased nearly sevenfold, from 17 to 116. The decrease among female teachers (800), although only 3 per cent., is of interest in contrast with the increase (of 15 per cent.) among male teachers.

Most professional workers, by reason of the nature of their occupations, come into personal contact with the people they serve, and thus tend to form local proportions that differ much less widely than those formed by many other workers. Thus, the male workers with an average proportion of 24 per 1,000 of 14 years and over, range from 15 in Lincoln, Holland, 16 in Stafford and the Isle of Ely and 17 in Durham to 36 in Cardigan, 38 in Cambridge and Hertford, 39 in Middlesex and 47 in Surrey. Professional women form the same average proportion as men (24 per 1,000), but have a rather narrower range, from 17 in Lincoln, Holland, 18 in the Isle of Ely and 19 in Durham, Leicester, Stafford and the West Riding of Yorkshire to 31 in Berkshire, 32 in Surrey, 33 in Oxford and West Sussex, and 36 in East Sussex. Since 36 per cent, of these women are nurses (including midwives and mental attendants), and a further 51 per cent, are teachers (including music teachers) a more restricted range than that of men is to be expected.

For both men and women the occupation which has the largest number of members is that of teaching. Male teachers (800, 801) number 84,346 and form a national proportion of 6 per 1,000 over 14. In the counties (see Table A of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 663]) the highest proportions are in Cambridge (14), Oxford (12), Caernarvon (10) and Cardigan (14); the lowest are in Bedford, the Isle of Ely, Lincoln, Holland and the Soke of Peterborough (4 each). The average proportion in Wales is somewhat higher than that in England. The proportion of female teachers (800, 801), which, on the average is 12, ranges from 9 in London to 18 in Huntingdon, Oxford and Brecknock. The members of the other large female profession, sick nursing (794), are relatively most common in East Sussex (15 per 1,000), West Sussex (12), London (11) and Berkshire, Southampton, Surrey, the Isle of Wight and Denbigh (10 each).

Order XXVI. Persons Professionally engaged in Entertainments and Sport from a comparatively small order, but one that has increased considerably since 1921. Its male members, as a whole, have increased by 45 per cent., and its female members by 13 per cent., the numbers being 91,654 and 22,369 respectively in 1931. Of the several occupations distinguished, noteworthy increases occur among bookmakers (839), the males by more than threefold and the females by more than fivefold; proprietors and managers of other entertainments and sports (834)—males 95 per cent., females 48 per cent.; stage hands, etc., (837)—males 73 per cent.; and film producers etc., (832)—males 64 per cent., females 136 per cent. Actors show very little change in numbers for either sex. Decreases are recorded for male theatrical agents £tc. (831)—32 per cent.; showmen, etc., (833)—males 8 per cent., females 31 per cent, and male race horse trainers, etc., (838)—28 per cent. The numbers shown under the last named heading are not precisely comparable for 1921 and 1931, grooms having been excluded in 1931. Reference to the Industry Tables, (page 719), shows an increase of about 21 per cent, in the corresponding industry (L753) (on the assumption that any contribution made by dog-racing and coursing to the 1921 figure was negligible).

The county distribution provided by Table A of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 661] shows that the male members of the order are 6 per 1,000 in England and Wales, 11 in West Suffolk and East Sussex, 10 in Berkshire and London, but only 2 in Lincoln, Holland and Cardigan. Race horse trainers, etc. (838) form proportions of 7 per 1,000 in West Suffolk, 3 in Berkshire and Wiltshire and 1 in Cambridge, Surrey, Sussex and the North Riding of Yorkshire; these counties together accounting for two-thirds of the national total of 2,360.

Order XXVII. Persons Engaged in Personal Service (including Institutions, Clubs, Hotels, etc.) (850-879). Greater numbers of occupied persons are assigned to this group than to any other single order but the number of males, 462,935, while itself considerable, was outnumbered by the females, 1,926,978, by more than four to one. Indeed, among occupied females this order contains more than three times as many as any other.

The largest individual occupation in the group is, of course, that of indoor domestic servants (850) which includes 17 per cent, of the males and 69 per cent, of the females, the next largest among males being inn and hotel keepers, etc., (864) with 15 per cent, and among females, charwomen, office cleaners (874) with 7 per cent.

The numbers in the order have increased since 1921 by 36 per cent, among males and 15 per cent, among females. Every male occupation shows an increase except inn and hotel keepers, etc., (864) the greatest among those with ten thousand or more employed being hall and hotel porters, etc., (869) with 136 per cent, and carpet beaters, etc., (875) with 119 per cent. Male domestic servants increased by 29 per cent. The only decreases in females occurred among inn and hotel keepers etc., as in the case of males, and among lodging and boarding house keepers (862), the numbers in the former falling by 39 per cent, and in the latter by 37 per cent. Female domestic servants increased by 16 per cent, and hairdressers, manicurists, etc. (872) showed a remarkabL1 increase from 5,843 in 1921 to 33,636, nearly 6 times as many.

The distribution throughout the counties shows considerable variation, ranging as might be expected, from low proportions in industrial areas to high ones in the more wealthy and mainly residential counties. For females the distribution is governed by and closely follows that of domestic servants. Males with an average of 32 per 1,000 aged 14 and over range from 16 in Monmouth to 66 in London whilst females with an average of 117 range from 73 in Leicester to 207 in Sussex East. In the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster the female proportion is as high as 384, of which about three quarters are domestic servants.

Domestic Servants (Indoor) (850). 78,489 males and 1,332,224 females were classified to this occupation heading which includes both resident and non-resident servants. These numbers represent 6 per cent, of the total occupied population in the case of males and 23-8 per cent, in the case of females, the proportions being slightly greater than in 1921.

Of the totals so classified, 35,693 males and 1,142,655 females were described as being in private domestic service; numbers which represent -3 per cent, of the male and 20-4 per cent, of the female occupied population (which compare with -2 and 19-0 in 1921).

The published Census figures do not distinguish servants living with their employer's household but some information has become available from a small sample from the Census record, taken for the purposes of a special committee of inquiry in another connection. The sample was one of about 50,000 private family schedules selected at random from the whole of the Census records and represents one 2OOth part of the total ten million private families enumerated. Although subject to the degree of error associated with a sample, it is believed to display the main features in the incidence of resident service.

The percentages of private families with resident servants to total private families derived from the sample are shown in Table LXIII from which it will be seen that 3-7 per cent, of all private families employ one resident domestic and i-i per cent, employ more than one. From these figures it may reasonably be assumed that nearly half a million private families employ resident domestics, of which about 375,000 have one servant each.

The total servants enumerated with the sample families numbered 133 males and 3,401 females, which, when multiplied by 200 represent about 27,000 male and 680,000 female resident servants in the whole population. These numbers suggest that of the combined total of resident and non-resident servants employed in private domestic service about 76 per cent, of the males and 60 per cent, of the females live in. The rather larger proportion of males is partly due to the inclusion in the sample of a few gardeners and chauffeurs who were not classed to the "domestic service" group in the Census classification.


Order XXVIII. Clerks and Draughtsmen; Typists (880-889) together make an order of 795,486 males and 579,945 females; the apparent increases since 1921 being 40 and 35 per cent, respectively. As the order includes, in 1931, the clerical staffs of the civil service and of local authorities which were excluded in 1921, the actual increases are probably less than half these percentages. Among the six occupations (or groups of occupations) that form the order, the largest percentage increase has occurred in heads or managers of commercial office departments (881) (males 89, females 152 per cent.); these are followed by draughtsmen (882) (males 68, females 56 percent.) and secretaries of companies, etc., (880) (males 51, females 64 per cent.). By far the largest occupation is that of other clerks (889) and typists (884), which are shown separately for 1931, but together for 1921. Male clerks under this heading are 84 per cent, of the order total; female clerks are 61 per cent., or, if typists (884) be included, 97 per cent. Typists are mainly female, the numbers being 212,296 females to 5,155 males. Since clerks form so large a percentage of the order, their local distribution may be taken as being very similar. Males in the order, with an average proportion of 54 per 1,000 of 14 and over (see Table A of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 661]), have high rates in Middlesex (122), Surrey (106), Essex (95) and London (81), and low ones in most of the agricultural counties—for example, Isle of Ely (20), Lincoln Holland (23), Rutland (17), West Suffolk (21). In Wales, the average is much lower than in England, and the range is from 35 per 1,000 in Glamorgan to 15 in Radnor.

Females in the order (see Table B of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 665]) whose national average proportion is 35 per 1,000, have high rates in Middlesex (76), London (65), Essex (56), Surrey (56) and Warwick (55). In the rural counties and in Wales, their relative frequency agrees closely with that of male clerks.

In a number of the urban areas near London, very high proportions occur. Thus, for males, in Middlesex, Southgate Urban District has 222 and Hornsey Municipal Borough 184 per 1,000 of 14 and over; in Essex, Ilford Municipal Borough has 204 and in Surrey, Coulsdon and Purley Urban District has 183, Carshalton Urban District 180 and Beddington and Wallington Urban District 174 per 1,000. For females, Hornsey Urban District and Southgate Urban District record 115 and 112 per 1,000 respectively. Finchley Urban District has 87 and Acton Municipal Borough 84; Ilford Municipal Borough 94, Leyton Municipal Borough 91, Barnes Urban District 89; Merton and Morden Urban District 89, the Maidens and Coombe Urban District 81 and Wimbledon Municipal Borough 80.

The proportions just quoted are those which result from comparing the clerks and typists with the population aged 14 and over. Even more striking figures result for females by limiting the comparison to the gainfully occupied. Thus, among the areas named the proportions range from 235 in Barnes Urban District to 329 in Southgate Urban District; in other words those women who follow clerical pursuits constitute from nearly a quarter to a third of the gainfully employed female population.

Order XXIX. Warehousemen, Storekeepers and Packers (890-899) form a group of 254,963 males and 155,784 females, and show increases over the 1921 numbers of 15 and 21 per cent, respectively. For males, (see Table G of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 680]) the increases in the several occupations distinguished range from 8 per cent, for other packers, etc., (899) to 43 per cent, for hookers, lappers, etc., (893); for females, the range is from a decrease of 6 per cent, for warehousewomen (890) to an increase of 55 per cent, for hookers, lappers, etc., (893).

The proportion of the male workers in England and Wales is 17 per 1,000 of 14 and over. Among the counties, it shows wide variations, from i or 2 per 1,000 in the W'elsh counties of Merioneth, Cardigan and Radnor to 27 in Lancaster, 30 in Leicester and 31 in London. The female proportion, which is 9 for England and Wales, is 14 in Lancaster, 16 in Leicester and 17 in London, and rises to 20 in Warwick.

Order XXX. Stationary Engine Drivers,Dynamo and Motor Attendants (900-909) number 157,107 males and 409 females. The males show little increase as compared with 1921; the females show large increase, but even so, their numbers are negligible in comparison with those of the males. The proportion of the males is n per 1,000 in England and Wales, and varies from i to 6 [in most of the rural and residential counties, and about 12 to 18 in the English coal mining counties, up to 24 in Carmarthen, 26 in Glamorgan and 27 in Monmouth. Of the total, 79,587 (51 per cent.) are stationary engine and crane drivers (900, 901), 49,592 (32 per cent.) are boiler firemen and stokers (903) and 10,405 (7 per cent.) are dynamo, motor and switchboard attendants (906, 907).

The workers in this order are naturally associated chiefly with those industries in which the movement of large quantities of heavy materials and goods is a necessary feature. Thus we find 23 per cent, of them engaged in coal mining (1:030), 8 per cent, in puddling furnaces (1:112), 6 per cent, in electricity supply (1:523-9), and smaller percentages in shipbuilding and repairing (I:200-9), building (1:460-9), gas works (1:510-6), railways (1:530), harbours and docks (1:560-4) and local government (1:720-9).

Order XXXI. Other and Undefined Workers (910-959) who number 1,448,008 males and 219,482 females, include, in addition to workers whose occupations are well-defined, a large number of labourers (930), general labourers (920) and other gainfully employed persons who, on the principles of classification adopted, could not be assigned to any of the occupational groups included in earlier orders.

The males in the order show an increase of n per cent.; the females, a decrease of 10 per cent. Having regard to the numerous and substantial transfers arising out of changes in classification, the accuracy of these figures is open to doubt. It seems, however, that the male increases among employers and managers (910) 58 per cent., watchmen (913) 27 per cent., sand blasters (916) 130 per cent, and rag, bone, etc., sorters (918) 24 per cent, are genuine.

The male members of the order, whose national average is 99 per 1,000 are relatively most numerous in the North Riding of Yorkshire (140), Flint (139), Lancaster (130), Cheshire (125) and Stafford (125), and least numerous in Rutland (56), Montgomery (53), Lincoln, Holland (51), Brecknock (49), Cardigan (46) and Radnor (42).

Order XXXII. Retired or Not Gainfully Occupied. This order consists of 1,385,526 males and 10,804,851 females. It includes students etc., in educational institutions (960), those who have retired from a previous gainful occupation (Y), and other persons in respect of whom no gainful occupation is stated (X). Persons who had at any time followed an occupation or calling for payment or profit but who were no longer so occupied or seeking to work for a living were asked to indicate the fact by recording their former occupation followed by the statement "Retired". The obligation was however qualified in respect of women by the more general instructions that particulars of occupation (for payment or profit) and industry were not required of wives or other relatives chiefly occupied in unpaid domestic duties at home: so that in the case of women, notwithstanding that the majority of them undertake some form of paid employment prior to marriage, the record of those who had done so but had retired from such employment on marriage would not normally be included in the Census record.

The total numbers of each sex thus returned and classified in 1931 as retired were 802,876 males and 172,416 females, numbers representing 5-5 per cent, of the males and r-i per cent, of the females in the total population from age of 14 upwards; the large disparity between the sexes is explained by the fact that most females marry and relinquish their former occupations in favour of domestic duties in which event they would, as already described, be largely excluded from the present reckoning.

Of the "Retired" males, the numbers and proportions returned at successive ages are shewn in the following statement. Normal retirement is predominantly a feature associated with attainment of the more advanced ages and this is reflected by the distribution which shews that of the total retired class, 72-3 per cent, were above 65 years of age, while 16-2 per cent, were between 55 and 65 and only 11-4 per cent, younger than 55.

Retired Males, 1931 Total 14 and over Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75 and over
Numbers (in thousands) 802.9 3.8 13.1 23.2 51.7 45.5 84.9 180.6 192.8 207.3
Distn. per 1,000 total 1,000 5 16 29 64 57 106 225 240 258
Percentage of total males in each age group 5.5 0.1 0.4 0.9 2.2 4.6 10.9 31.2 51.2 65.1

1921/1931 Comparison, the Retired in each case being exclusive of men returning their previous occupation as members of the Armed Forces

  Total 14 and over Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75 and over
Numbers (thousands) :                    
  1931 760.5 3.1 9.7 16.5 42.0 40.3 79.9 176.0 189.3 203.7
  1921 392.4 2.6 7.2 14.0 30.5 25.9 44.7 64.1 89.4 114.0
Percentage of total males in each age group:                    
  1931 5.2 0.1 0.3 0.7 1.8 4.1 10.3 30.4 50.2 64.0
  1921 3.0 0.1 0.3 0.6 1.4 3.3 7.4 14.3 31.9 45.5

In relation to the total population in each age group the percentages "Retired" are shewn to increase continuously with age. Below age 45 they do not reach i per cent, and must be ascribed almost exclusively to the inevitable element of premature invalidity which will always be present even at the youngest ages. Thereafter the rise steepens reaching 10-9 per cent, between 60 and 65 and proceeding thence to a maximum at the final age period identified, viz., 75 and over where 65-1 per cent, of the population are so returned. The interest in the proportion at the higher ages lie not so much in the incidence of retirement as of the complementary evidence it provides of the large proportions of men who remain in active employment; it is undoubtedly a fact of social significance that 87 per cent, of the male population between the ages of 60 and 65 were actually in work or seeking work and that at the even higher age groups 65-70 and 70-75 the proportions were as high as 65 per cent, and 42 per cent, respectively.

The comparable trend from the preceding Census of 1921 is obscured by the fact that that Census was taken during the transitional resettlement period which followed the 1914-1918 war And that abnormal proportions of men at the early adult ages were then returned as having left the Armed Forces without as yet having acquired a civilian occupation. In such circumstances this class was entirely excluded from the "Retired" and for such comparison as is possible with the 1931 records, the ex-Service class must likewise be excluded from the latter as is done in the comparative 1921/1931 statement given in the tabular statement above. In this form the total numbers retired at all ages were 392 thousands in 1921 as compared with 760 thousands in 1931 denoting the very substantial increase of 94 per cent, in the 10 years. Part of the increase can be accounted for by the changes in the general population; not only has it increased in overall size (the 1931 total male population over age 14 is n per cent, greater than that of 1921) but it has also aged, that is to say, the increases at the old ages where most retirements take place have been relatively greater than the increases at younger ages, a change which again would lead to an expectation of corresponding addition to the retired class. Application of the 1921 age percentages of retired to the 1931 units of population, would lead to an expectation of some 496 thousands retired; so that of the total 368 thousands increase in the decennium, 104 thousands (496-392) can be attributed to changes in the population structure and only the balance, viz., 264 thousands or 53 Per cent, (of 496) to more indefinable factors of the social and economic situation.

The influence of the latter is best seen in the last two lines of the tabular statement in which the comparable 1921 and 1931 percentages are set out for each age. It will be seen that all the large increases are located at the advanced ages from which it may be inferred that the general increase and range in pension allowances and other amenities for the aged have been responsible for considerable increases in the numbers able and willing to take advantage of them. At the same time, the increases in proportions are not confined to the high ages and it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the proportions at all ages might have been lower in 1931 but for the intense industrial depression and that many who would have been prepared to work, preferred to return themselves as "Retired" rather than as seeking work of which there was no prospect.

For females, the 1921/31 comparison is as follows:—

  Total 14 and over Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75 and over
Numbers (in thousands) :                    
  1931 172.4 3.0 7.7 10.0 18.1 146 23.4 34.1 30.6 30.9
  1921 73.4 2.3 5.2 6.5 9.5 6.4 8.6 9.7 11.4 13.8
Percentage of total occupied and retired females (including out of work) at each age :                    
  1931 3.0 0.1 0.6 1.4 3.2 6.7 14.0 28.6 46.1 61.5
  1921 1.4 0.1 0.5 1.0 1.9 3.6 6.5 10.6 26.1 43.2

At all ages the total females in the class (172 thousands) are less than 23 per cent, of the corresponding male total while at the older ages associated with normal retirement the disparity is even greater, retired females being but 18 per cent, of the male class at ages above 60. As indicated earlier the difference is due to the exclusion from the record of women who relinquish paid employment on marriage and on this account it has been deemed preferable in displaying the age incidence in the last two lines of the statement to relate the "Retired" to the combined total of "Occupied" and "Retired" rather than to the total females in the community. In this form the principal features of the incidence parallel those of men, with low percentages at the lower ages suggesting a somewhat higher degree of early invalidity than amongst males but probably due in large part to the selective effect of the withdrawal of married women, and a continuous and steepening rise in the proportions to the oldest ages identified, the interest in the percentages at the old ages likewise being as much in the light they throw on the high complementary proportions still at work as upon the retired themselves.

Compared with 1921 the overall numbers of retired show an increase of 99 thousands (135 per cent.) in the decennium of which about 24 thousands may be ascribed to the general ageing of the population and the balance to the increased inducements in favour of retirement whether positive in the shape of improved pensions and amenities or negative in the reduction of employment opportunities.

The county distribution of the males in the whole order (see Table A of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 660] shows that the highest proportion, 188 per 1,000, occurs in Cambridge, and that this is followed by the Isle of Wight (168), Cardigan (163), Oxford (156), Devon and West Sussex (144) and East Sussex (142). The high figures in Cambridge and Oxford are due to the large numbers of students enumerated there. The retired (Y) are relatively most numerous in the Isle of Wight (120 per 1,000), but there are also substantial proportions in West Sussex (90), Devon (89), Cornwall (86), East Sussex (83), Somerset (80) and West Suffolk (80). The former occupations of males and females are set out in detail for England and Wales in Tables 12 and 13 of the Occupation Tables Volume.

The female members of the order form a national proportion of 661 per 1,000 aged 14 and over (see Table B of the Occupation Tables Volume [page 664]). The proportions are highest in those coal mining counties in which other industries make little demand for female labour—Monmouth (820), Glamorgan (804), Carmarthen (797), Durham (792) and Brecknock (788). The predominantly agricultural counties have rates that are somewhat lower—Lincoln: Holland (748), Kesteven (779), Lindsey (758), Suffolk East (726), West (738) and the Isle of Ely (780), etc. At the other end of the range are London (557), Leicester (563) and Lancaster (568).

The Welsh counties have consistently high proportions varying from 820 in Monmouth to 739 in Radnor.

5 Persons Temporarily " Out of Work ".

Census records of persons temporarily "out of work" were tabulated for the first time in 1931. For a number of reasons the subject of unemployment does not readily lend itself to statistical treatment by the Census method. In the first place it is normally a seasonal feature varying in its incidence according to the time of year and in this respect varying differently as between one occupation and another; an instantaneous picture taken on a particular day in April may be quite unrepresentative of the year as a whole or of its normal incidence among the various occupations distinquished. Secondly the general concept of unemployment or non-employment is not so definite and unambiguous as to ensure a uniformity of response in a general population inquiry; a certain degree of unemployment, like sickness, is a normal concomitant of all occupations and apart from those who are chronically and unmistakably "out of work" there will always be an additional number whose temporary unemployment for a short time should rather be regarded as an inseparable feature of the occupation rather than an avoidable social evil.

Notwithstanding the difficulties to be anticipated from the inquiry, the unprecedented scale of the economic depression of 1931 was such that it was felt that a Census picture of the occupation and industry position would be incomplete and misleading without some measure, however approximate, of the more serious degree of unemployment to which it was subject; and there was some additional confidence in making the attempt in that it was the chronic element in unemployment that was known to have assumed alarming proportions and the record less likely therefore to be seriously distorted by the inclusion of some temporary or casual element which it might be unable to avoid.

The general Census approach and objective is to be inferred from the way the question was asked and the instructions printed on the Census schedule. (See page 193).

The direct question to which a positive reply was expected in respect of every person aged 14 or over who was following or had previously followed some occupation or calling for payment or profit was as follows—

State occupation or calling followed. If out of work or wholly retired add "Out of work" or "Retired" as the case may be, after the statement of occupation.

and the direction both as to the unemployment condition and to the occupation with which it was to be associated was amplified in the following instructions—

Subject to the special cases mentioned below, the usual occupation should be stated. A person does not cease to have an occupation solely because he is for the time being unemployed. A carpenter remains a carpenter, even though he is temporarily out of work.. but cases may occur where a man has not been employed at his original occupation for a very long time. The question is—what is the occupation by which he is seeking to earn a livelihood. If he is still seeking a living at his original occupation, he should enter that occupation (adding "out of work") even if he has been for a long time unemployed at it. If, on the other hand, he has no prospect of making a living by that occupation and is getting and relying upon some other work for his means of livelihood, he should state the occupation by which he is at present getting a livelihood. But if a man has done no paid work of any kind since he ceased to be employed at his original occupation, he should in any case state that occupation, adding "out of work" if still seeking to earn a living, or "retired" if no longer seeking to work for a living.

Some light on the nature and reliability of the records obtained from the Census inquiry is forthcoming in an appendix to a Report of the Unemployment Insurance Statutory Committee published in 1935 (Cmd. 4786) in which an attempt was made to compare the Census record of unemployment in a series of industries with corresponding items in the series regularly obtained by the Ministry of Labour in respect of persons falling within the statutory insurance classes. The Ministry of Labour statistics distinguish between persons wholly unemployed and those who are temporarily stopped or are casual workers not working on the particular day of ascertainment and the difference between the "wholly unemployed" and the "total unemployed" varies materially in different industries. It was anticipated that the Census figures would correspond more closely to the "wholly unemployed" of the Ministry of Labour records and the comparison accorded almost exactly with this expectation, the Census percentage of unemployment in the various industries lying between the two Ministry of Labour percentages but much nearer to that of the "wholly unemployed" than to the "total unemployed". The comparison that it was possible to make was limited to males and covered about two-thirds of the occupied male population (or about half of the combined total of occupied males and females); and the general percentages of unemployment disclosed in the test were 16-6 from the Census returns as compared with 15-4 wholly unemployed and 21-3 total unemployed in the Ministry of Labour returns. The outstanding feature of the comparison, however, was not so much the total comparison as the close resemblance, industry by industry, between the Census proportion and the "wholly unemployed" percentages of the Ministry of Labour. The Committee conclude that the Census returns "have real value as an indication of the comparative levels of unemployment in different industries."

The unemployment statistics derived from the Census are extensive and appear, in their relevant place, in most of the tables in the published 1931 Census Volumes of Occupation and Industry statistics.

For the country as a whole 2,166,806 of the population aged 14 and over was returned and classified as being "out of work" and seeking work at the date of the Census. Of these 1,683,742 were men and 483,064 women and the proportions these numbers bear to the total occupied, i.e., inclusive of the out of work but excluding the retired are 11-5 per cent, in respect of both sexes combined or 12-7 per cent, in the case of males and 8-6 per cent, females.

Within successive age sections of the population, the corresponding percentages out of work were as follows:—

  All ages over 14 14- 15 16- 17 18- 20 21- 24 25- 29 30- 34 35- 44 45- 54 55- 59 60- 64 65- 69 70- 74 75 and over
Males 12.7 4.9 7.6 11.5 14.5 12.5 11.1 10.8 12.7 15.9 20.4 22 18.4 12
Females 8.6 5 6.8 8.2 9.1 10 10.1 9.1 8.8 9 9.7 7.4 4.7 3.6

In the case of males the age curve is double humped, the proportions rising at the younger ages to an initial peak at ages 21-24 followed thereafter by a marked depression over the middle years of active life and a more substantial rise thereafter to a maximum at 65—69. The distribution is not an unexpected one since a natural reaction of the industrial depression would be a tendency to slow up the recruitment of new entrants at the young ages and a simultaneous discharge of the less efficient workers at the higher ages. The lower incidence of unemployment at the intermediate ages is complementary to the higher percentages on either side of them but it may also be specifically affected by the fact that the male populations between 30 and 44 are themselves abnormally low owing to their being the classes depleted by heavy casualties of the 1914-18 war. Any tendency to retain a naturally progressing age distribution amongst employed workers would thus itself involve some reduction in the scale of unemployment at the middle groups apart from any selection on grounds of productive efficiency. It may be doubted whether the lower proportions at ages below 21 and after 70 are to be interpreted as reflecting a diminished incidence of unemployment at these extremes of working life. It is probable that in addition to those who returned themselves in the "out of work" category, there were many others who would have taken a job if one had been available but who, in the hopelessness of the situation, could not regard themselves as seriously seeking work, the juvenile element taking advantage of extended educational facilities as an alternative and the elderly section anticipating a state of retirement which in any event would have been inevitable for them within a year or two.

For females the variations with age are far less marked than they are amongst males. As with the latter, the proportions rise over the adolescent ages but thereafter they only vary between a maximum of 10.1 and a minimum of 8.8 between the ages of 21 and 64. The question as to whether they should regard themselves as seeking work may well have been influenced not so much by their willingness to undertake remunerative work as by whether there was in fact any such work available for them.

The general incidence of unemployment by industry will be seen from Table LXIV attached which shews the percentages out of work in 21 industrial orders (and a few separate industries within them) both for males and females in a series of age groups.


For males the average percentage which, as already stated, was 12-7 for all industries ranges from 5-7 in agriculture (II), to 20.5 in metal, etc., manufacture (VI). Among the separate industries shown, the manufacture of textile machinery etc. (154, 155), shipping service (550, I), cotton weaving" (262), shipbuilding etc. (200-9), puddling furnaces, etc., (112) and lead, tin and copper mining (041, 042) have very high proportions of unemployment. The proportions among the age-groups show some variation, but in the main, the largest percentages appear in the higher groups.

For females, with a national average of 8-6 per cent., the lowest proportion of unemployment among the orders is found in public administration (XVIII), 1.8 per cent., and the highest in the manufacture of textiles (VII), 19.6 per cent. In common with the males, high rates occur in cotton weaving (262) and cotton carding, etc., (260, 261).

Amongst the individual occupations contributing to the several industries and services the lowest percentages "out of work" in the case of males are returned by farmers (0.6), signalmen (0.5), males engaged in public administration (0.5), Anglican clergymen (0.3), Roman Catholic priests (0.1), medical men (0.6), and the defence forces in which no unemployment is returned. At the other end of the scale are boiler makers (36.2), builders of ships and boats (33.3), actors (37.2), musicians (38.0), and general labourers (36.0). Among females the lowest places are filled by farmers (0.4 per 1,000 occupied), managers of retail grocery and provision businesses (0.4) and Roman Catholic nuns (no unemployment), and the highest places by smiths, etc., (25.0), spinners and piecers (24.8), weavers (26.0), water transport workers (24.9), actresses (40.5), musicians (32.1), general labourers (29.0), and labourers (so specified) (27.3).

The sex and age incidence amongst the types of occupations chiefly affected will be observed from Table LXV.


It will be observed that the variations with age previously referred to for all classes combined, is reflected by similar gradations in many of the individual types shewn in the table. And where, in such cases the overall rate of unemployment is high, the proportions reach exceptional heights at their peak ages; for example, among males, boiler makers out of work are 63-8 per cent, of the occupied at ages 65-69, riveters are 71-1 at 65-69 and actors f>i-f, at 70-74; among females, weavers are 39-5 at age 60-64 and actresses 63-5 at 65-69. In some callings, however, unemployment is less definitely affected by age, and labourers and musicians may be cited as examples of occupations where a high overall percentage of "out of work" is maintained practically throughout the whole age range.

The general geographical incidence of unemployment in 1931 is indicated in Table LXVI.


With a national average among males of 12-7 per cent, of occupied, the proportions in the regions range from 7-8 in the South West and 8-8 in the South East to 20-9 in Wales i and 24-3 in North i. Among the counties, county boroughs and other large urban areas shown in this table, the range of variation is very much wider, and extends from 3-8 per cent, in Southgate U.D. to 36-6 in Sunderland C.B., that is, from 0-30 to 2-9 of the average. Among females, whose average is 8-6 per cent., the regional range extends from 5-2 in the South West to 15-4 in North 4: and in the other areas named in the table from 2-5 in Luton M.B. to 41-6 in Blackburn C.B., that is, from 0-29 to 4-8 of the average. The following list shows, in order, the areas returned as having the lowest and highest percentages of unemployed to occupied (including unemployed) population.

Lowest Area % Highest Area % Lowest Area % Highest Area %
Southgate U.D. 3.8 Rhondda U.D. 25.9 Luton M.B. 2.5 Bootle C.B. 14.2
Finchley U.D. 4.3 Newcastle-upon-Tyne C.B. 26.9 London City 2.8 Dewsbury C.B. 14.7
Hendon U.D. 4.7 Gateshead C.B. 27.2 Cambridge M.B. 2.9 Rochdale C.B. 16.3
Swindon M.B. 5.0 Middlesbrough C.B.13 27.7 Finchley U.D. 3.0 Lancaster A.C. 17.0
Ilford M.B. 5.1 Tynemouth C.B. 28.3 Oxford C.B. 3.1 Bury C.B. 19.5
Westmorland A.C. 5.2 Stockton-on-Tees M.B. 30.4 Westmorland A.C. 3.2 Preston C.B. 20.9
Radnor A.C. 5.3 West Hartlepool C.B. 34.7 Cardigan A.C. 3.3 Oldham C.B. 21.0
Oxford C.B. 5.4 Merthyr Tydfil C.B. 35.8 Hendon U.D. 3.4 Ashton under Lyne M.B. 27.9
Surrey A.C. 5.4 South Shields C.D. 35.9 Southgate U.D. 3.5 Burnley C.B. 29.5
Devon A.C. 5.5 Sunderland C.B. 36.6 Hertford A.G. 3.8 Blackburn C.B. 41.6
        Hove M.B. 3.8    

For males it will be noticed that of the areas with the lowest degree of unemployment 5 arc in the neighbourhood of London, and of those with the highest degree, 9 are in the North of England and 1 in South Wales; and that, for females, of the areas of lowest percentages 4 are in or near London, and of those with the highest percentages 9 are in Lancashire and 1 in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

6. Comparison of the Results of 1911, 1921 and 1931 by reference to Sex, Age and Marital Condition.

In comparing the occupational results of the Censuses of 1911, 1921 and 1931, it is desirable to recall the chief relevant circumstances of the period of twenty years between 1911 and 1931. The decennium 1911-1921 was dominated by the European war of 1914-1918, and to it are traceable most of the outstanding differences between the results of the Censuses of 1911 and 1921. In 1921, many men who had been released from service with the colours during the war had not found employment; some who had found employment discovered that it was unsuitable and so desired to change it. A large number of young men whose attendance at college or university had been prevented or interrupted by hostilities, undertook courses of professional or other training for civilian life. Of those who had been wounded, many were still undergoing treatment. The end of the war brought about the discharge of large numbers of munition workers: many of these, in common with demobilised combatants, returned to the building and other industries that had been partially suspended during the war; others remained for some time in the labour market, and were only slowly absorbed by industry; while still others, mostly females, returned to non-gainful domestic and other duties in which they had been engaged before taking up munition work. As the war progressed, the younger men were gradually taken for military service, and their civilian posts were filled either by elderly men or by women, who, after the cessation of hostilities, relinquished them very slowly. Many women, especially those whose actual or prospective husbands had been killed or incapacitated, were obliged to continue to work because their economic status or prospects had been altered; others, who were not compelled by economic necessity to continue to work in a paid occupation had become accustomed to their new life and wished to continue it. Both classes showed very considerable reluctance to give up their work in favour of unknown men whose abilities and needs might not be greater than their own.

In whatever way the period about the Census of 1921 be considered, it must be regarded as very abnormal. It was a period of high hopes and prices, intense activity, much restlessness and great fluidity of movement. During the following years, the national effort was directed consciously and unconsciously, to the building up of a new social and industrial order in which the ill effects of the war were to be swept away, its lessons regarding mass production and organisation were to receive general application and in which progress was to be made at an even greater pace than that which would have resulted from the continuation of pre-war trends. Concurrently, industrial disputes tended to increase and culminated in the General Stoppage of 1926. Social and industrial conditions appeared to be changing with such rapidity that the best efforts of the community could only achieve a degree of adjustment to them that fell far short of what is usually possible under normal conditions. As time went on, many of the hopes with which the decennium commenced proved to be ill-founded, much of the activity was ill-conceived, and by 1931 the boom of 1921 had given place to a slump that was accompanied by widespread disillusion, unemployment and distress. Among other important circumstances of the period were the gradually decreasing birth-rate and death-rate, the extension of old-age pensions and the encouragement given to young people to continue their schooling or training beyond the age of 14 years. All of these, it may be supposed, had an effect in one direction or the other, on the proportions of the occupied population.


In Table LXVII are given the proportions occupied per 1,000 population enumerated at the Censuses of 1911, 1921 and 1931, for a total composed of people aged 14 years and over, and for the members of each of ten age-groups. A comparison of the proportions for persons—i.e., males and females together—for all ages over 14 in combination, shows that there were 607 occupied per 1,000 enumerated in 1931 and 608 in 1921. Judged on this broad basis it might be inferred that there had been but little difference in occupational incidence between the two Censuses, but the analysis by age shows that there had been substantial changes, and the further analysis by sex and marital condition shows that almost every group had been affected. The main feature of a comparison limited to persons is that in all groups up to age 45, the proportions occupied increased, and that in all groups after that age they diminished. 2 The extension of the comparison to 1911, shows that, in five out of the ten groups distinguished the proportions in 1921 do not lie between those of 1911 and 1931—ages 14-15, 25-34, 35~44> 55~14 and 65-74—and thus emphasises the abnormal nature of the results of 1921. But, apart from the lowest age-group 14-15, there is agreement in the general trend that young people tend to be occupied more and elderly people less in 1931 than in 1911 and 1921.

For all males, between 1911 and 1931, there is a decrease in the proportions in the total and in all age-groups up to age 44, equality at 45-54, increase at 55-64 and decrease thereafter. In four of the groups, 25-34, 35-44 55-64 and 65-74, the proportions in 1921 lie outside the proportions in 1911 and 1931, thus showing a departure from the 1911-1931 trend. The virtual constancy of the proportions in 1911 and 1931 over the 30 years of age, 25-54, worthy of notice. So far as the grouping of married males is comparable with that of all males, the results are similar, and the practical equality of the proportions in 1911 and 1931 for ages 25-54 extends below to the combined group under age 25, and above to the group 55-64. It is thus only in old-age that the proportions of occupied married men have decreased appreciably. The degree of abnormality in the proportions in 1921 is similar to that found for all males.

For all females, there is a decrease between 1911 and 1931 in the total proportion and in the proportions after age 45, but in all groups under 45 there are increases. The 1921 proportions fail to conform to the 1911-1931 trend at ages 14-15, 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54. For single females, there are substantial increases in the total proportions and in all groups up to 55-64, and unimportant decreases thereafter. In only two groups, the first aged 14-15 and the last, aged 75 and over, does the 1921 proportion lie outside the proportions for 1911 and 1931. The very considerable rise in the total proportion, from 677 per 1,000 in 1911 to 683 in 1921 and 719 in 1931, and in the proportions in most of the age-groups is a feature of great interest. Married women have proportions that show little change between 1911 and 1931 in the total, but large increases in the lower ages and large decreases in the higher ages. The higher proportions of young occupied married women may perhaps be associated with the reduction in the marriage-rate (from 16-6 persons married per 1,000 population in 1911-1920 to 15-5 in 1921-1930) and with the still greater reduction in the birth-rate (from 21-8 per 1,000 population in 1911-1920 to 18-3 in 1921-1930). The variations in the proportions of young occupied widows as between 1921 on the one hand and 1911 and 1931 on the other, at all ages under 35, and especially at ages under 25, may be related to the special circumstances existing in 1921. At ages 18-25, there were enumerated 2,553 widows in 1911, 5,970 in 1921 and 2,167 in I93I- At ages 25-34 these were, respectively, 40,868, 98,331 and 36,887.

The outstanding occupational features of the period of 20 years covered by Table LXVII are the largely increased proportions among single women, the decreased proportions among widowed women and the aged of both sexes, the constancy in the proportions of married men over the main working period of life and the generally exceptional character of the results of the Census of 1921.

1 These volumes are now out of print but may be referred to in any good public library or the library at the General Register Office, Somerset House, London, W.C.2.

2 The two groups into which persons aged 18—24 are divided are not severally comparable, since, in 1931, the division was at age 21, while in earlier Censuses, it was at age 20. For the entire group aged 18—24, the proportion occupied was 835 in 1931, 806 in 1921 and 805 in 1911. For males the corresponding proportions are 965, 967 and 969, and for females, 710, 663 and 654.

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