Picture of William Camden

William Camden

places mentioned

Yorkshire: East and North Ridings

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EAST-Riding, the second part of this region, wherein Ptolomee placed the Parisi, lieth Eastward from Yorke. On the North side and the West it is bounded with the river Darwent, that runneth downe with a winding course, on the South with the Salt water of Humber, and on the East with the German Ocean. Upon the Sea side and along Darwent the soile is meetly good and fertile, but in the mids it is nothing else but an heape of hilles rising up on high, which they call Yorkes wold. Darwent, springing not farre from the shore, first taketh his way Westward. Then he windeth into the South by Aiton and Malton, whereof, because they belong to the North part of the Shire, I will speake in due place. No sooner is hee entred into this quarter but downe he runneth not farre from the ruins of the old Castle Montferrant. The Lords whereof were in times past the Fossards, men of noble parentage and welthy withall. But when William Fossard ward to the King, being committed unto William le Grosse Earle of Aumarle as to his guardian, and now come to his yeeres, abused his sister, the Earle in wreckfull displeasure for this fact of his laid this Castle even with the ground and forced the young Gentleman to forsake his country. Howbeit, after the Earles death he recovered his inheritance againe, and left one onely daughter behind him, who, being married unto Richard de Tornham, bare a daughter maried to Peter de Mauly, whose heires and successours, being bettered in their estate by this inheritance of the Fossards, became great and honorable Barons. Not farre from hence is situate upon the river side Kirkham, as one would say of Church-place. For a Priory of Chanons was there founded by Walter Espec, a man of high place and calling, by whose daughter a great estate accrewed to the family of the Lords Rossess. Then, but somewhat lower, Darwent had a Citie of his owne name, which Antonine the Emperour calleth Derventio, and placeth it seven miles from Yorke. The booke of Notices maketh mention of a captaine over the companie Derventiensis under the Generall of Britaine, that resided in it, and in the Saxons Empire it seemeth to have beene that towne where the King used to lie, which Bede saith was situate neere unto the river Doroventio. In which, as he also writeth, Eumer that murderous villaine thrust at Edwin King of Northumberland with a sword and had runne him through, but that one of his men stepped betweene and saved the Kings life with the losse of his own. Yet could never have said precisely which was the very place, had not that most judicious Robert Marshall given me a light thereof. For he gave me to understand that just at the very same distance from Yorke which I spake of there stands hard upon the river Darwent a little towne named Auldby, that is, if you interpret the Saxon word, The old Habitation , where are extant yet in sight some tokens of antiquity, and, upon a very high hill neere unto the river, the rubbish of an ancient fortification, so that it cannot chuse but to have beene the said Citie Derventio. From hence glideth the river hard under Stanford Bridge, which also of the battaile there fought is called Battlebridge. For at that bridge Harald King of England, after a great execution done upon the Danes, slew in a pight [pitched] field Harald Haardread King of Norway, who with a fleet of 200 saile grievously annoied the Isle of Britaine, and was now landed at Richall, spoiling and wasting all in his way. The King of England who, having the honour of the field, found among the spoiles such a masse of gold as that twelve lustie young men had much adoe to carry it on their backes, as Adam Bremensis recordeth. This field was foughten scarce nine daies before the arrivall of William Conquerour, what time the dissolute and roiotous life of the Englishmen seemed to fortell their imminent overthrow and destruction. But of this I have spoken before.

32. Derwent, which when it is encreased with raine, and as it were provoked to anger, doth often time contemne his bankes and surround the medowes lying about it, passing from hence by Wreshil, a proper and strong Castle which Sir Thomas Percy Earle of Worcester built, running amaine under Babthorpe, which yeedeth both name and habitation to a worshipfull family of Knights degree, and so at length dischargeth himselfe into Ouse. Out of this stocke it was (for let us not thinke much to tell of those who performed faithfull service to their Prince and country) that both father and sonne, fighting together under the banner of King Henrie the Sixth, lost their lives in the battaile of Saint Albans, and were there buried together with this Epitaph:

Behold where two Raulph Babthorps, both the Sonne and father, lie,
Under a stone of marble hard, enterrd in this mould drie.
To Henrie Sixth the father Squire, the Sonne he Sewere [steward] was,
Both true to Prince, and for his sake they both their life did passe.

33. And now Ouse, by this time carrying a fuller streame, runneth neere Howden a mercate towne, famous not so much for any beauty in it, or great resort thereto, as because it hath given name to a little Territorie adjoining called of it Howdenshire, and had therein not long since a prety collegiat Church of five Prebendaries, unto which joined the Bishops house of Durrham, who have great lands thereabout. One of which, namely Walter Skirlaw, who flourished about the yeere of Lord 1390, as we read in the booke of Durham, built a very great and large steeple to this Church, that if there happened by chance any inundation it might serve the inhabitants for a place of refuge to save themselves in. And not farre from hence stands Metham, which gave both surname and habitation also to the ancient house of the Methams.

34. And now the river Ouse, being very broad, swift, and roring besides, outpoureth his streame into the Frith or salt water Abus. For so calleth Ptolomee that arme of the Sea which the English Saxons and we tearme Humber, whereof also the country beyond it by a generall name was called Northumberland. Both these names may seeme to have beene drawne with some little change from the British word aber , which among them signifieth the mouth of a river, and I would thinke it was imposed upon this river by way of excellencie, because Ure or Ouse, having entertained and lodged many rivers, carieth them all with him along into this, yea and other rivers of right great name are emptied into it. And verily it is one of the broadest armes of the sea and best stored with fish in all Britaine. It riseth high as the Ocean, at every tid floweth, and when the same ebbeth and returneth backe, it carieth his owne streame and the current of the sea together most forcibly and with a mighty noise, not without great danger of such as saile therein, whence Necham writeth thus of it:

More fear'd of shipmen Huber streame, than waves of sea so deep,
Disdaining cities great to see, neare country townes doth keepe.

And following the British Historie, as if it had beene so called of a King of the Hunnes, he addeth this moreover:

A prince of Hunnes, whiles that he shewed his backe to Locrine brave,
Was drowned heere, and so the name to Humber water gave.

Touching whom another Poet also:

Whiles he turn'd backe and tooke this flight, the river stopt the same.
There drownd was he, and then of him the water tooke the name.

35. Neither were there indeed any cities seene to stand by this Arme of the Sea in Nechams daies, but before and after there flourished one or two Cities in these places. Under the Roman Empire, not farre from the banke by Foulnesse, a river of smal account, where Wighton a little towne of husbandry well inhabited is now seene, stood, as we may well thinke, in old time Delgovitia. And that I may not take hold of the distance from Derventio for a proofe, both the resemblance and the signification also of the name doe concurre. For delgwe in the British tongue signifieth the Statues or Images of the Heathen Gods , and in a small village adjoining to this little towne there was a temple of Idols even in the Saxons time, of exceeding great name and request, which of those Heathen gods was then tearmed Godmundingham, and now is called in the same sense Godmanham. Neither doubt I but that even when the Britans flourished it was some famous Oracle much frequented, when superstition spread, and, swaying among all nations, had wholy possessed the weak minds of ignorant people. But when Paulinus preached Christ unto Northumberland men, Coy-si, who had beene a Pontife or Bishop of the heathen rites and ceremonies, after hee had once embraced Christian religion, first of all profaned this Temple, the very inhabitation of impiety, by launcing a speare against it, yea hee destroyed it and, as Bede writeth, set it on fire with all the enclosures and Isles belonging to it. From hence, something more Eastward, the river Hull bendeth his course to Humber, which river hath his spring head neere unto Driffeild, a village well knowne by reason of the tombe of Alfred that most learned King of Northumberland, and the mounts that be raised heere and there about it. The said river hasteneth thitherward, not farre from Leckenfielde, an house of the Percies Earles of Northumberland: neere unto which standeth the dwelling place of a very famous and ancient progenie of the Hothams at Schorburg, together with the rubbish of an old Castle of Peter Mauly at Garthum. And now approacheth the river Hull nerer unto Beverly, in the English Saxon tongue called Bever-lega , which Bede seemeth to name, the monasterie in Deirwaud, that is, in the wood of the Deiri , a great towne, very populous and full of trade. A man would guesse it by the name and situation to be Petuaria Parisiorum, although it affordeth nothing of greater antiquity than that John surnamed de Beverley, Archbishop of Yorke, a man, as Bede witnesseth, both godly and learned, after he had given over his Bishopricke as weary of this world, came hither and ended his life in contemplation, about the yeere of our redemption 721. The Kings held the memoriall of this John so sacred and reverend, especially King Athelstan, who honored him as his tutelar Saint, after he had put the Danes to flight, that they endowed this place with many and those very great priviledges, ?and Athelstane granted them liberties in these generall words, As free make I thee, as heart may thinke, or eie may see. ? Yea and there was granted unto it the priviledges of a Sanctuarie, so that bankrupts and men suspected of any capital crime worthy of death might be free and safe there from danger of the law. In which there was erected a Chaire of stone with this inscription:

This seat of Stone is called Freedstool , that is, The
chaire of Peace,
unto which what offender soever
flieth and commeth, hath all maner of security.

36. Hereby the towne grew great, and daily there flocked hither a number to dwell as inmates, and the townesmen for conveiance of commodities by sea made a chanell for a water course out of the river Hull sufficient to carry boats and barges. For the chiefe Magistracie there it had twelve wardens, afterwards Governours and Wardens. And now, by the gracious grant of Queene Elizabeth, a Major and Governours. More Eastward, there flourished Meaux Abbay, so called of one Gamell borne at Meaux in France, who obtained it at William the Conquerours hands for a place to dwell in, and heere was founded an Abbay for the Monkes of the Cluniacke order by William Le Grosse Earle of Aulbermarle, to be released of is vow that he had made to visite Jerusalem. A little lower runneth out in a great length Cottingham, a country towne of husbandry, where by licence granted from King John, Robert Estotevill the Lord thereof built a Castle, now utterly fallen to ruine. Which Robert was descended from Robert Grondebeofe or Grandebeofe, a Baron of Normandie and a man of great name and reputation: whose inheritance fell by marriage to the Lord de Wake, and by a daughter of John de Wake it came to Edmund Earle of Kent, who had a daughter named Joane wife unto that most warlicke Knight Edward Prince of Wales, who so often victoriously vanquished the French in divers places. The river Hull aforesaid, after it hath passed six miles from hence, sheddeth himselfe into Humber, and neere unto his mouth hath a towne of his owne name called Kingston upon Hull, but commonly Hull. This towne fetcheth the beginning from no great antiquity. For King Edward the First, who in regard of his Princely vertews deserveth to bee ranged among the principall and best Kings that ever were, having well vewed and considered the opportunity of the place, which before time was called Wike, had it by right of exchange from the Abbat of Meaux, and in lieu of the Beasts stalls and sheepe pastures, as I conceive it, which there he found, built a towne that he named Kingston, as one would say, The Kings towne. And there , as we read in the records of the Kingdome, hee made an haven and free Burgh, the inhabitants thereof also free Burgesses, and he granted divers liberties to them. And by little and little it rose to that dignity that for stately and sumpteous buildings, for strong blockhouses, for well furnished ships, for store of Merchants and abundance of all things, it is become now the most famous towne of Merchandise in these parts. All which the inhabitants ascribe partly to Michael De la Pole, who obtained their priviledges for them after that King Richard the Second had promoted him to the honor of Earle of Suffolke, and partly their gainfull trade by Island [Iceland] fish dried and hardned, which they terme Stockfish, whereby they gathered a maine masse of riches. Hence it came to pass that within a little while they fensed their Citie with a bricke wall, strengthend it with many Towres and Bulwarkes where it is not defended with the river, and brought such a deale of coblestones for ballais [ballast] to their ships, that therewith they have paved all the quarters and streets of the towne most beautifully. For the cheife Magistrate it had (as I have beene enformed) first a Warden or Custos , then Bailives, afterward a Major and Ballives, and in the end they obtained of King Henry the Sixth that they might have a Major and a Sherife, and that the very towne should be a County, as our lawiers use to say, incorporate by it self. Neither will I thinke it much to note, although in Barbarous tearmes, out of the booke of Meaux Abbay, as touching the Major of this City. William De la Pole, Knight, was beforetime a merchant at Ravens-rod, skilfull in merchandise and inferiour to no English merchant whatsoever. He, making his aboade afterwards at King-ston upon Hull, was the first Major that ever the said towne had: hee beganne also and founded the monastery of Saint Michel hard by the said King-ston, which now is an house of the Carthusian or Charter-house monkes. And hee had for his eldest sonne Sir Michael De la Pole Earle of Suffolke, who caused the said Monasterie to bee inhabited by Carthusian monkes. And verily William de la Pole aforesaid lent many thousand pounds of gold unto King Edward whiles he made his abode at Antwerp in Brabant, wherefore the King in recompence of the said gold made him Lord chiefe Baron of is Exchequer, conferred upon him the whole Seignorie or Lordship of Holdernesse, togither with other lands belonging unto the Crowne, and that by the Kings Charter, yea and ordained that he should be reputed a Baneret. Yet if any man make doubt hereof, the Recordes, I hope, may satisfie him fully, in which William De la Pole is in plaine tearmes called dilectus valectus et mercator noster , that is, Our welbeloved valect [valet] and our Merchant. Now Valect , to tell you once for all, was in those daies an honorable title as well in France as in England, but afterwards applied unto servants and gromes, whereupon when the Gentry rejected it, by changing the name they began to be called Gentlemen of the Bedchamber.

37. From Hull a Promontorie runneth on forward and shooteth out afarre into the sea, which Polomee calleth Ocellum, wee Holdernesse, and a certaine monke Cavam Deiram , as it were the hollow Country of the Deirans , in the same signification that Coelosyria is so tearmed, as one would say Holow Syria. In this Promontory the first towne wee meet with in the winding shore is Headon, in times past (if wee list to beleeve fame that useth to amplifie the truth, and which for my part I will not discredite) risen to exceeding great account by the industry of merchants and sea-fairing men: from which (so uncertaine is the condition as well of places as of people) it is so much fallen by the vicinity of Hull and the choaking up of the haven which hath empoverished it, that it can shew scarce any whit of the ancient state it had, although King John granted unto Baldwin Earle of Aulbemarle and of Holdernesse, and to his wife Hawis, free Burgage heere, so that the Burgers might hold in free Burgage, with those customes that Yorke and Nichol , that is, Lincolne. Yet now it beginneth by little and little to revive againe in hope to recover the former dignity. There standeth hard by the Promontorie an ancient towne which Antonine the Emperour called Praetorium, but wee in our age Patrington, like as the Italians have changed the name of a towne sometime called Praetorium into Petrovina. That I doe not mistake heerin, both the distance from Delgovitia and the very name yet remaining doth prove, which also in some sort implieth that this is the very same that in Ptolomees copies is written Petuaria corruptly for Praetorium. But whether this name were given it either from Praetorium, that is, the hal of Justice , or from some large and stately house such as the Romans tearmed praetoria, it doth not appeere for certaine. The inhabitants glorie much yet as touching their Antiquity and the commodiousnesse of the haven in ancient times, and they may as well glorie for the pleasantnesse thereof. For it hath a most delectable prospect: on the one side lieth the maine sea brimme upon it, on the other Humber a famous arme of the sea, and over against it the fresh and greene skirtes of Lincolnshire. The high way of the Romans from the Picts wall which Antonine the Emperor followed here endeth. For Ulpian hath written that such high waies commonly end at the sea, at rivers, or at Cities. Somewhat lower standeth Winsted, the habitation of the Hildeards knights of ancient descent; and higher into the Country Rosse, from whence the honorable family of the Barons Rosse tooke their name, like as they were seated there in times past; and hard by the sea-side Grimstons-garth, were the Grimstons for a long time have lived in good reputation; and a little from hence standeth Rise, the mansion house in old time of certaine noble men bearing the name of Faulconberg. And then, in the very necke of the promontorie, where it draweth in most narrow into a sharpe point, and is called Spurnhead, is Kelnsey a little village, which plainely sheweth that this is the very Ocellum mentioned by Ptolomee. For, as from Ocelklum Kelnsey is derived, so Ocellum doubtless was made of y-kill , which, as I have said before, signifieth in the British tongue a Promontory or narrow neck of land .

38. From Spurn-head the shore withdraweth it selfe backe by little and little, and, gently bending inward, shooteth Northward by Overthorne and Witherensey, two little Churches, called of the sisters that built them Sisters kirks. And not farre from Constable-Burton, so called of the Lords thereof, who beeing by marriages linked to right honorable houses, flourish at this day in great worship, and out of which familie Robert (as wee read in the booke of the Abbay of Meaux) was one of the Earle of Aubemarls knights, who being aged and full of daies tooke upon him the Crosse and went with King Richard in his voiage toward the holy land. Then by Skipsey, which Dru the first Lord of Holdernesse fortified with a Castle. When the shore beginneth to spread againe and beare out into the sea, it maketh roome for a bay or creeke that Ptolomee calleth ????????? Gabrantovicorum, which the Latine Interpreters have translated, some, Portuosum Sinum , that is, The harborous Creeke , others Salutarem , that is, The safe Creeke. But neither of them both better expresseth the nature of the Greeke word than the very name of a little village in the nouke thereof, which wee call Sureby. For that which is safe and sure from danger, the Britans and French men both terme seur , as wee Englishmen sure , who peradventure did borrow this word from the Britans. There is no cause, therefore, why wee should doubt but that this creeke was that very ????????? of the Gabrantovici who dwelt there abouts. Hard by standeth Bridlington, a towne very well knowne by reason of John of Bridlington a poeticall monkish prophet, whose ridiculous prophesies in Rhyme I have read ?albeit they were not worth the reading.? And not farre from hence for a great length toward Driffield was there a ditch, cast up and brought on by the Earles of Holdernesse to confine and bound their lands, which they called Earles Dyke. But whence this little nation here inhabiting were named Gabrantovici I dare not search, unlesse happily it were of goates, which the Britans tearme gaffran , and whereof there is not greater store in al Britain than hereabout. Neither ought this derivation of the name to seeme absurd, seeing that Aegira in Achaea boroweth the name of goates, Nebrodes in Siciliy of fallow Deere, and Boetia in Greece of Kine and Oxen. That little Promontory which with his bent made this creeke is commonly called Flamborough Head, and in the Saxon tongue Fleam-burg by Authors, who write that Ida the Saxon, who first subdued these Countries, arrived here. Some thinke it tooke the name from a watchtowre which did by night put forth a flame or burning light for to direct sailers into the haven. For the Britains retaine yet out of the provinciall language this word flam , and Mariners paint this creeke in their sea-cards [charts] with a blazing flame on the head. Yet others are of opinion that this name arrived in this Island with the English out of Angloen in Denmarke, the ancient seat of the English nation. For there is a towne called Flemsburg, and that the Englishmen from hence called it so, like as the Gaules, as Livie witnesseth, tearmed Mediolanum, that is, Millan in Italie, after the name of Mediolanum in Gaule, which they had left behind them. For there is a little village in this Promontory named Flamborrough, where another notable house of the Constables had anciently their seat, which some do derive from the Lacies Constables of Chester. Beeing in these partes, I could learne nothing for all the enquirie that I made as touching the bournes commonly called Vipsey, which (as Walter of Heminburgh hath recorded) flow every other yeere out of blind springs and runne with a forcible and violent streame toward the sea neere unto this Promontory. Yet take here with you that which William Newbrigensis, who was borne neare that place, writeth of them. Those famous waters which commonly are called Vipseys rise out of the earth from many sources, not continually, but every second yeere, and beeing growne unto a great bourn runne downe by the lower grounds into the sea. Which when they are dry, it is a good signe. For their breaking out and flowing is said to be an infallible token portending some dearth to ensue. From thence the shore is drawne in, whereby there runneth forth into the sea a certaine shelf or slang, like unto an out-thrust tongue, such as Englishmen in old time termed a file , whereupon the little village there Filey tooke name. And more within the land you see Flixton, where in King Athelstanes time was built an Hospitall for the defense (thus word for word it is recorded) of way-faring people passing that way from Wolves, least they should be devoured. Whereby it appeereth for certaine that in those daies Wolves made foule worke in this tract, which now are no where to be seene in England, no not in the very marches toward Scotland, and yet within Scotland there be numbers of them in most places.

39. This little territory or Seigniory of Holdernesse King William the First gave to Drugh Buerer a Fleming, upon whom also hee had bestowed his Niece in marriage, whom when he had made away with poison and thereupon fled to save himselfe, hee had to succeed him Stephen the son of Odo, Lord of Aulbemarle in Normandy, who was descended from the Earles of Champaigne, whom King William the First, because hee was his nephew by the halfe sister of the mothers side, as they write, made Earl of Aulbemarle: whose posterity in England retained the title, although Aulbemarle be a place in Normandy. His successor was William surnamed Le Grosse , whose onely daughter Avis was married to three husbands one after another, namely to Wiliam Magnavill Earle of Essex, to Baldwine De Beton, and William Foris or de Fortibus. By this last husband only she had issue William, who also had a sonne named William. His onely daughter Avelin, beeing the wedded wife of Edmond Crouchback Earle of Lancaster, died without Children. And so , as we read in the booke of Meaux Abbay, for default of heires the Earledome of Aulbemarle and honor of Holdernesse were seized into the Kings hands. Howbeit in the ages ensuing King Richard the Second created Thomas of Woodstock his unkle, and afterwards Edward Plantagenet Earle of Rutland, the Duke of Yorkes son, Duke of Aulbemarle in his fathers life time. Likewise King Henry the Fourth made his owne sonne Thomas Duke of Clarence and Earle of Aulbemarle, which title King Henry the Sixth afterward added unto the stile of Richard Beauchamp Earle of Warwicke, for the greater augmentation of his honour.


SCARCE two miles above Flamborrough-head beginneth the North Riding, or the North part of this Country, which, affronting the other parts and beginning at the sea, is streatched out Westward and carrieth a very long tract with it (though not so broad) for threescore miles togither, even as farre as to Westmorland, limited on the once side with Derwent, and for a while with the river Ure, on the other side with Tees running all along it, which on the North coast seperateth it from the Bishoprick of Durham. And very fitly may this part bee divided into Blackamore, Cliveland, Northallvertonshire and Richmondshire.

41. That which lieth East and bendeth toward the sea is called Blackamore, that is, The black moorish land. For it is mountanous and craggy. The sea coast thereof hath Scarborrough castle for the greatest ornament, a very goodly and famous thing, in old time called Scear-burg , that is, A burgh upon the Scar or steepe rocke. The description whereof have here out of William of Newburgh his history. A rocke of a wonderfull height and bignesse, which by reason of steepe cragges and cliffes almost on every side is unaccessible, beareth into the sea, wherewith it is all compassed about save onely a certaine streight in manner of a gullet, which yeeldeth accesse and openeth into the West, having in the toppe a very faire, greene, and large plaine conteining about three score acres of ground or rather more, a little well also of fresh water springing out of a stony rocke. In the foresaid gullet or passage, which a man shall have much adoe to ascend up unto, standeth a stately and princelike Towre, and beneath the said passage beginneth the City or Towne, spreading two sides South and North, but having the fore part Westward. And verily it is fensed afront with a wall of the owne, but on the East fortified with the rock of the Castle, and both the sides thereof are watered with the sea. This place William Le Grosse Earle of Aulbemarle and Holdernesse, vewing well and seeing it to bee a convenient plot for to build a Castle upon, helping Nature forward with very costly worke closed the whole plaine of the rocke with a wall, and built a towre in the very streight of the passage. Which beeing in processe of time fallen downe, King Henry the Second caused to bee built in the same place a great and goodly castle, after hee had now brought under the Nobles of England, who during the loose government of King Stephen had consumed the lands of the Crowne, but especially, amongst others, that William abovesaid of Aulbemarle, who had in this tract ruled and reigned like a King, and possessed himselfe of this place as his owne. Touching the most project boldnesse of Thomas Stafford, who to the end hee might overthrow himselfe with great attempts, with a few French men surprised this Castle of a sodaine in Queene Maries reigne, and held it for two daies togither, I neede not to speake, ne yet of Sherleis, a gentleman of France, who, having accompanied him, was judicially endited and convict of high treason, albeit he was a forrainer, because hee had done against the duty of his allegeance , the peace then betweene the Kingdome of England of France beeing in force. These are matters better knowne than that the world can take notice of them by any writings of mine. Yet may this seeme a thing worth my labour and expedient to note, how the Hollanders and Zelanders use to take mervelous plentie of herrings (call them in Latin haleces, leucomenidae, or chalcides , which of them you please) upon this coast, and make a very gaineful trade thereof, having anciently first obtained licence by an ancient custome out of this castle. For the Englishmen granted licence to fish, reserving the honour to themselves, but resigning for lazinesse, as it were, the profit unto strangers. For it is almost incredible what infinite summes of money the Hollanders raise unto themselves by this their fishing in our shore. These Herrings (pardon mee, I pray you, if briefly by way of digression I doe make mention of Gods goodnesse towardes us), which in our great grandfathers daies kept as it were their station onely about Norway, now in our time, not without the divine providence, swimme yeerely around about this Isle of Britain by skules in wonderfull great numbers. About Midsommer they shoole out of the deepe and vast Northren-sea to the coasts of Scotland, at which time, because they are then at the fattest, they be streightwaies sold. Thence come they to the English East coast, and from the middest of August unto November is the best and most plentuous taking of them betweene Scarborrough and Tamis mouth. Afterwards, by force of some great storme, they are carried into the British sea, and there untill Christmas offer themselves to the fishers nettes. From hence, dividing themselves and swimming along both sides of Ireland, after they have coasted round about Britaine, they take their course into the Northren Ocean as their home, and there settle themselves as it were and rest untill June, where, after they have cast their spawne and brought forth a yong frie, they returne againe in mighty great skulles and so march about these Isles. Whiles I am writing hereof, that comes into my minde which sometimes I read in Saint Ambrose. Fishes (saith hee) by infinite numbers, meeting, as one would say, by common consent out of many places from sundry creekes of the sea, with a joint flote, as it were, make toward the blastes of the North winde, and by a certaine direction and instinct of Nature hast into that sea of the Northren partes. A man that sawe the manner of them would say a certaine tyde were comming downe from the current, they rush so forward and cut the waves as they passe with a violent powre through Propontis into Pontus Euxinus. But to my matter againe.

42. From thence the shore, endented and interlaced with rockes, bendeth in as farre as to the river Teise, and by a compasse that the said shore fetcheth there is made a bay about a mile broade, which of that outlaw Robert Hood so much talked about we call Robin Hoods Bay. For hee (as John Major the Scotishman writeth) flourished in the reigne of Richard the First, and the said Author setteth him out with this commendation that, hee was in deed an Arch-robber, but the gentellest theefe that ever was. Then Dunus Sinus, a creeke mentioned by Ptolomee, streightwaies by giving backe of the shore on both sides sheweth it selfe, neere unto which standeth Dunesley a little village, and hard by it Whitby, in the English Saxon tongue Streaney-heale , which Beda expoundeth to bee the Bay of a Watch-towre. Neither will I call that interpretation into question, although in our language it doth resemble Sinum Salutis , that is the Bay of health , so that I would say this very same was Salutaris Sinus , that is, The Bay of safety, but that the situation in the Geographer did perswade mee otherwise. Here are found certaine stones faschioned like serpents folded and wrapped round as in a wreathe, even the very pastimes of Nature disporting her selfe, who, as one saith, when shee is wearied as it were with serious workes, forgeth and shapeth some things by way of game and recreation. A man would thinke verily they had beene sometime serpents, which a coate or crust of stone had now covered all over. But people to credulous ascribe this to the Praiers of Saint Hilda, as if shee had thus transformed and changed them: who in our Primitive Church withstood to her powre the shoring and shaving of Priests and the celebration of Easter according to the order of Rome, when a Synod was helden touching these matters in the yeere of our Lord 664 in the Abbay which shee had built in this place, and whereof her selfe was first Governesse. Unto whose holinesse also they ascribe that those wild geese which in winter flie by flockes unto Pooles and Rivers that are not frozen over in the South partes, whiles they flie over certaine fields heere adjoyning, soudainely fall downe to the ground, to the exceeding great admiration of all men: a thing that I would not have related had I not heard it from very many persons of right good credit. But such as are not given to superstitious credulity attribute this unto a secret propriety of this ground, and to an hidden dissent betweene this soile and those geese, such as is between wolves and Squilla rootes. For provident Nature hath infused suchlike secret mutuall combinations and contrarieties, which the learned terme Sympathies and Antipathies, as all men acknowledge, for their preservation. Afterwards Edelfleda King Oswins daughter enriched this Abbay with most large revenewes, where also she solemnized her fathers funerall obsequies. But at length the Danes, robbing and spoiling wherever they came, utterly overthrew it, and although Sir Percie reedified it, being immediately upon the comming in of the Normans head-ruler of the same, yet now it scarce affordeth any footing [vestige] at all of the ancient dignity. Hard by upon a steepe hill, howbeit betweene two others higher than it, toward the sea, stood by report the Castle of Wada a Saxon Duke, who in that confused Anarchie of the Northumbers and massacre of Princes and Nobles, having combined with those that murdred King Ethered, gave battaile unto King Ardulph at Whally in Lancashire, but with so disasterous successe that after his owne powre was discomfited and put to flight, himselfe was faine to flie, and afterwards by a languishing sicknesse ended his life, and heere within the hill betweene two entire and solide stones above seven foote high lieth entombed: which stones because they stand eleven foote asunder, the people doubt not to affirme that hee was a mighty Giant. Neere unto this place, long time after, Peter de Malolacu built a Castle, which being full as it were of grace and beauty he named in French Moult-Grace , as we read in the historie of Meaulx, but because it became a most grievous yoke unto the neighbour inhabitants, the people, maisters alwaies of our usuall speech, by change of one letter termed it Moult-grave , by which name, although the reason thereof be not so well knowen, the world takes knowledge of it. This Peter de Malolacu, commonly called Mauley (that I may in this point satisfie the curious), borne in Poictou in France, married the onely daughter of Robert de Turnham in the reigne of King Richard the First, in whose right he entred upon a very great inheritance; after whom succeeded in order seven Peters called Lords Mauley, who give for their Arms a bend Sables in an eschocheon Or. But when the seventh died issuelesse, this the Manours of Dancaster, Bainton, Bridesalle &. were parted by the sisters betweene the families of the Salvains and Bigots.

43. Neere unto this place, as elsewhere in this shore, is found Blacke amber or Geate. Some take it to be that gagates which in old time they held to be one of the rare gems and pretious stones. It groweth among the cliffes and rockes where they chinke and gape asunder. Before it be polished, it is of a reddish colour, but after it be once polished it becommeth, as saith Solinus, as a Gemme of a bright radiant blacke colour. Touching which, Rhemnius Palaemon out of Dionysius Afer thus versifieth:

The Geat is blacke and shineth passing bright,
Which Stone in water dipt and drencht takes fire and burneth light.
In oyle, a wonder for to see, the flame is quickly done,
And, like to Amber, rub it hard, small stickes it catcheth soone.

And Marbodaeus in his little booke of pretious stones:

Geat is a Stone and Gemme well neere, that men in Lycia find,
But fruitfull Britaine yeelds the best simply of all that kind.
Of colour blacke, yet bright it is, most smoth and light withall.
Well rubbed and enchauf'd thereby, thin strawes and fescues small
That are neere hand it drawes thereto. It burns in water drencht.
Annoint the same with fatty oyle, the flame streightwaies is quencht.

Heare also what Solinus saith: In Britaine there is great store of gagates or Geat, and an excellent stone it is. If you demaund the colour, it is a bright radiant blacke; if the quality, it is in maner nothing weighty; if the nature, it burneth in water, and is quenched with oyle; if the vertue, being made hote with rubbing, it holdeth such things as are applied thereto.

44. From Whitby the shore gives backe Westward, by which lieth Cliveland, taking that name as it seemeth of steep bankes, which in our language we call cliffes. For there runne along along the side thereof cliffie hills, at the foote of which the country spreadeth into a plaine full of fertile fields. Upon the shore Skengrave a little village is much benefited by taking great store of fish, where also, by report, was caught a Sea-man about 70 yeeres since, that for certaine daies together fed of raw fishes, but, espying his opportunity, escaped away unto his proper element again. Whensoever the winds are laied, and that upon still wether the sea is most calme, and the water lieth as one would say levell and plaine without any noise, there is heard heere many times on a sudden a great way off, as it were, an horrible and fearefull groning. At which time the fishermen dare not launch out farre into the deepe, as beleeving, according to their shallow reach [understanding], that the Ocean is a fell and cruel beast, and being then very hungry desireth greedily in that sort to devoure mens bodies. Beneath Sken-grave is situate Kilton Castle within a parke, which belonged sometime to the habitation of the Thwengs, whose patrimonie descended to the Barons of Lumley, Hilton, and Daubeneie. And there joineth almost close unto Skelton Castle, appertaining to the ancient family of the Barons Brus, who derive their descent from Robert Brus the Norman. The said Robert had two sonnes, Adam Lord of Skelton and Robert of Anandale in Scotland, from whom is descended the roiall stem of Scotland. But Peter Brus the fifth Lord of Skelton died without issue, and left his sisters to inherite: namely Agnes, wife to Walter Falconberg; Lucie, wedded to Marmaduke Thweng, of whom is come the Baron Lumley; Margaret, married to Robert Ros; and Laderina to John Belle-eau, men in that age of honorable reputation. The heires successively of Walter Falconberg flourished a long time, but in the end by a femall the possessions came to Sir William Nevil, who was a redoubted Knight for martiall proesse, and by King Edward the Fourth advaunced to the title of Earle of Kent. And his daughters were bestowed in marriage upon Sir John Coigniers, Nicholas Bedhowing, and Richard Strangwaies.

45. Neere unto Hunt-cliffe and not farre from the shore there appeere aloft at a vale water certaine rockes, about which the fishes that we call Seales, short (as some thinke) for Sea-veales , meete together in droves to sleepe and sunne themselves. And upon that rocke which is next unto the shore there lieth one, as it were, to keepe the Centinell, and as any man approcheth nere, he either by throwing downe a big stone or by tumbling himselfe into the water with a great noise giveth a signall to the rest to looke unto themselves and get into the water. Most affraid they be of men, against whom when they chase them they, being destitute of water, fling backward with their hinder feete a cloud, as it were, of sand and gravell stones, yea and often times drive them away. For women they care not so much, and therefore whosoever would take them use to bee clad in womens apparell. In the same coast are found stones, some of a yellowish, others of a reddish colour, and some againe with a rough cast crust over them of a certaine salt matter, which by their smell and tast shew of Coperose, nitre, and brimstone, and also great store of Marquesites in colour resembling brasse.

46. Hard by at Huntly Nabb, the shore that lay for a great way in length open riseth now up with craggey rockes, at the rootes whereof there lie scattering heere and there stones of divers bignesse, so artificially by nature shaped round in maner of a globe that one would take them to be big bullets made by the turns hand for shot to bee discharged out of great ordinance. In which, if you breake them, are found stony serpents enwrapped round like a wreath, but most of them are headles. Then see you from thence Wilton Castle, sometime the Bulmers, and above it at Dobham the river Tees voideth into the Sea after it hath lodged sundry rivers, and at the last one that is namelesse, beside Yare a mercate towne well known, which river watereth Stokesley, a little mercate towne, likewise that hath a long time appertained to the noble family of Eure. Beneath which places, Wharton Castle belonging to the Barons Menill, and Harsley to the family of Hotham, and afterward to Strangwaies, now wrestle with old age, and hardly hold up their heads.

47. The mouth of Tees aforesaid, suspected in times past of sailers, is now found to be a sure road and harbour, and to give direction for safe accesse and entrance unto it there are erected on both sides thereof within our remembrance high turrets with light. Foure miles from this Tees mouth standeth Gisburgh on high, now a small towne, but whiles it stood in flourishing estate it was right glorious for a very faire and rich Abbay built by Robert de Brus, Lord of the place, about the yeere of our Salvation 1119, and for the common buriall place of all the gentry and nobility of this tract, which also brought forth Walter de Heminford, no unlearned Historiographer. This verily is a passing good place, and may well for pleasantnesse, delightsome variety, and rare gifts of Nature contend with Puteoli in Italy, which in regard of healthy situation it also farre excelleth. The aer is molified and made more mild by the mountaines seated betweene it and what way the sea yeeldeth a cold and winterly disposition. The soile fruitfull and plenteous in grasse affordeth delectable floures a great part of the yeere, and richly aboundeth with vaines of mettall and Alum-earth of sundry colours, but especially of ocher and murray [rust], likewise of iron, out of which they have now begunne to try very good Alum and Coperose. Which with learned skill and cunning not many yeeres since Sir Thomas Chaloner Knight (a learned sercher into natures workes, and unto whose charge our most high and mighty King hath committed his sonne Prince Henrie, the lovely joy and delight of Britaine) first discovered, by observing that the leaves of trees were of a more weake greene colour heere than in other places, that the okes had their rootes spreading broad but very eb [shallow] within the ground, the which had much strength but small store of sappe, that the earth, standing upon cley and being of divers colours, whitish, yellowish, and blew, was never frozen, and in a cleere night glittered in the pathes like unto glasse. Not farre off, Ounsbery or Rosebery Topping mounteth up in a mighty height and maketh a goodly shew afarre of, serving unto sailers for a marke of direction, and to the neighbour inhabitants for a prognostication. For so often as the head thereof hath his cloudy cap on, lightly [often] there followeth raine, ?whereupon they have a Proverbiall Rhime, when Rosebery topping weares a cap, let Cliveland then beware a clap. ? Neere unto the top of it out of an huge rocke there floweth a spring of water medicinable for diseased eies, and from hence there is a most goodly and pleasant prospect downe into the vallies below lying a great away about, to the hils full of grasse, greene meddowes, delightsome pastures, fruitfull corne fields, riverets stored with fish, the river Tees mouth full of rodes and harbours, the ground plaine and open without danger of inundation, and into the sea with ships therein under saile. Beneath it standeth Kildale, a Castle of the Percies Earles of Northumberland, and more Eastward Danby, which from Brus also by the Thwengs came unto the Baron Latimers, from whose heire descended the Willoughbeies, Barons of Brooke. But this Danby with other possessions was sold to the Nevills, of which family Sir George Nevill was by King Henrie the Sixth called among Barons to the Parliaments under the name of Lord Latimer, in whose progenie and posterity this dignity hath continued unto our daies. There remaineth nothing else heere for me to note but that the Barons Meinill held certaine lands in this shire of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and for the same the Coigners, Strangwaies and Darcies, descended from them, are bound to performe certaine service to the said Archbishops. and whereas the King of England by his Prerogative shall have the Wardship (these bee the very words of the Praerogative) of all their lands who hold of him in chiefe by Knights service, of which themselves as tenants shall be seized in their Demense as of Fee, the day whereon they die, of whomseover they held by the like service, so that themselves notwithstanding hold of the King an tenement of the ancient demesne of the Crowne unto the full and lawfull age of the heire. Yet are excepted these Fees and others of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Durrham, betweene Tine and Tees &., so that they may have the Wardship of such lands, although elsewhere they held of the King.

48. Farther within the country among the mountaines of Blackamore there offereth it selfe (beside wandering beakes [streams] and violent swift brookes, which challenge the vallies everywhere as their owne to passe through) no memorable thing, unlesse it be Pickering, a good bigge towne belonging to the Dutchy of Lancaster, situate upon an hill and fortified with an old Castle, unto which a number of small villages lying there round about doe appertaine, whereupon the country adjoining is commonly called Pickering Lith, the Liberty of Pickering, and Forest of Pickering, the which King Henrie the Third gave unto his younger sonne Edmund, Earle of Lancaster, Wherein, neere unto the river Darwent standeth Atton, that gave name unto the right noble family of the Attons Knights, descended from the Lords Vescy, the inheritance of which family was by the daughters parted betweene Edward Saint John, the Evers, and the Coigniers. Now from Edward Saint John a great portion thereof came by a daughter to Henrie Bromflet. Which Henrie verily was summoned to the High court of Parliament by these expresse termes, elsewhere not to be found in Summons: Our Will is that both yee and your heires males of your body lawfully issuing be Barons of Vescy. Afterwards that title passed away by a daughter to the Cliffords. On the other side, foure miles from Pickering neere unto Dow, a swift running riveret, lieth Kirkby-Morside hard unto the hilles, where of it had that name a mercate towne not of the meanest reckoning, and the possession sometime of the Estotevilles.

49. Behind these Westward, Rhidal lieth low, a goodly, pleasant and plentifull vale adorned with three and twenty Parish-churches, through the mids whereof runneth the river Rhie. A place (as saith William of Newborrough) wast, desolate, and full of horrour , before that Walter Espec had granted it to the Monkes of the Cluniack order and founded there an Abbay. In this vale is Elmesley seated, which, if I deceive not my selfe, Bede called Ulmetum; where that Robert called de Rosse, surnamed Fursan, built a Castle, nere unto which the river Recall hideth it selfe under the ground. More beneath, hard by the riverside standeth Riton, an ancient possession of the ancient familie of the Percihaies, commonly named Percies. From thence Rhie carrieth with him the streames of many a brooke into Derwent, which watereth in this vale Malton a mercate towne well knowne, and frequented for corne, horses, fish, and implements of husbandry, where are to be seene the foundations of an old Castle belonging, as I have heard say, in old time to the Vescies, Barons in these parts of great estate and honor. Their pedigree, as appeereth evidently by the Kings records, is derived from William Tyson, who being Lord of Malton and of Alnewicke in Northumberland, was slain in the battaile at Hastings against the Normans. Whose onely daughter was given in marriage to Ivo de Vescy a Norman, and he left behind him his only daughter likewise named Beatric, with whom Eustach the son of Fitz-John With One Eye contracted marriage, who in the reigne of Stephen founded the religious houses at Malton and Watton. For his second wife, daughter to William, Constable of Chester, was Ladie of Watton. William the sonne of Eustach by Beatrice, being ripped out of his mothers wombe, assumed unto him the name of Vescy and the Armes, a Cross-floury Argent in a shield Gueles. This William begat of Beatrice daughter to Robert Estotevill of Knaresburg two sonnes, Eustach de Vescy, who tooke to wife Margaret daughter to William King of the Scots, and Sir Warin de Vescy Lord of Knapton. As for Eustach, father hee was of William, who begat John, that died without issue, and William so renowned for his exploites in Ireland. And these changed the Armes of their house into a shield Or with a crosse Sables. But William, after that his legitimate sonne John died in the warre of Wales, granted unto King Edward certaine lands in Ireland that his illegitimate sonne William surnamed of Kildare might inherite is fathers estate. And he ordeined Anthony Bec Bishop of Durham his feofie in trust to the use of his sonne, but he was scarce trusty as touching Alnewic, Eltham in Kent, and other lands, which he is reported to have conveied indirectly to his owne use. This illegitimate sonne young Vescy was slaine in the Battaile of Sterling in Scotland. And at length the title fell backe unto the line of the Attons, considering that Margaret the only daughter of Sir Gwarin Vescy was wedded unto Gilbert de Atton. But heereof enough, if not to much, and of it I have spoken before.

50. Neere unto this vale there flourished two famous Abbaies, Newborrough (unto which we are endebted for William of Newborrough, a learned and diligent writer of the English Historie), now the habitation of the worshipfull family of Bellasise, descended out of the Bishopricke of Durrham, and Bellelanda, commonly Biland, both founded and endowed by Robert Mowbay. This family of the Mowbraies was for powre, nobility, and wealth comparable to any other, and possessed very faire lands with the Castles of Slingesby, Threske, and others in this Tract. The originall of this race if you desire to understand, I will compendiously set it downe. When Roger de Mowbray Earle of Northumberland and Richard de Grundebeofe for their disloialtie were disseized of all their possessions, King Henrie the First bestowed a great part thereof upon Nigell or Niele de Albeni, of the same family that the Albeneis Earles of Arundell were descended; a man of very high birth in Normandie, who had bin Bowbearer to King William Rufus, and so enriched him thereby that he held in England 140 Knights fees, and in Normandie 120. He commanded also that Roger is sonne should assume the name of Mowbray, from whom flowred out the Mowbraies Earles of Nottingham and Dukes of Norfolke. To these Mowbraies also belonged in times past Gilling Castle standing hard by, but now unto that ancient and worshipfull familie which of their faire bush of haire got their name Fairfax. For fax in the old English tongue signifieth haires or the haire of the head, whereupon our progenitours called a Comet or blasing starre A Faxed starre , like as a place, whereof I have spoken before, Haly-fax , of holy haires.

51. Then beneath these Southward lieth Calaterium Nemus , commonly called The Forest of Caltres , shaded in some places with trees, in others some a wet flat, full of moist and moorish quavemires, very notorious in these daies by reason of a solemne horse running, wherein the horse that outrunneth the rest hath for his prise a little golden bell. It is almost incredible what a multitude of people conflow hither from all parts to these games, and what great wagers are laid on the horses heads for their swift running. In this Forest standeth Creac, which Egfrid King of Northumberland in the yere 684 gave with three miles round about unto Saint Cuthbert, by whom it came to the Church of Durrham. Scarce foure miles hence is situate most pleasantly among little woods and groves Sherry-Hutton, a very proper Castle bilt by Sir Bertrand Bulmer, and reedified by Ralph Nevil, the first Earle of Westmorland. Neere unto which standeth Hinderskell, a little Castle built by the Barons of Greystocke, which others call Hunderd-skell, of a number of fountaines that spring up and rise there.

52. Behind the hilles Westward, where the country spreadeth it selfe out againe into a more fresh and plaine champion, lieth Alvertonshire, commonly called Northallertonshire, a little countrie watered with the riveret Wiske, and taking the name of Northalverton a towne, sometime called Eafertun , which is nothing else but a long broad street, howbeit having in it on S. Bartholomewes Day the greatest Faire of Kine and Oxen, and of most resort that I ever saw in all my life. King William Rufus gave this with the territorie adjoining unto the Church of Durrham, to the Bishops of which See it is very much beholden. For William Comin, who by force held the Bishopricke of Durrham, built the Castle there, and granted it unto his nephew, which now is in maner quite decaied and gone. The Bishops likewise his successours granted unto it certaine liberties and immunities. For in the Booke of Durham we read that Hugh Pudsey Bishop of Durrham fortified the towne, having obtained licence of the King, that among those unlawfull castles which by commandement were then destroyed in many places of England, this onely should have the priviledge to stand still. Which notwithstanding, the King commaunded afterward to be layd even with the ground. Hard by this was that field foughten which they commonly call the Battaile of the Standard, in which David King of Scots, who with his unexampled cruelty had made this country almost a wildernesse, was after so great a slaughter of his people put to flight, that then and never before our countrimen thought they were fully revenged. For that indeed came to passe in this battaile which Raulfe the Bishop said, when before the battaile in an oration he encouraged the English to fight: A confused multitude untrained is an impediment to it selfe, in prosperous successe to hurt others, and in adverse fortune to escape it selfe. This was called The battaile of the Standard because the English, keeping themselves close together about the standard, received the first onset and shock of the Scotish, endured it, and at length put them to flight. And this Standard, as I have seene it pictured in ancient bookes, was a mighty huge chariot supported with wheeles, wherein was set a pole of a great height in maner of a mast, and upon the very top thereof stood a crosse to be seene, and under the crosse hung a banner. This when it was advaunced was a token that every one should prepare himselfe to fight, and it was reputed as an holy and sacred altar that each man was to defend with all powre possible, resembling the same for all the world that carrocium of the Italians, which might never be brought abroad but in the greatest extremetie and danger of the whole state.

53. Within this little shire Threske, commonly called Thruske, is worth to bee mentioned: which had sometime a most strong Castle out of which Roger Mowbray displaied his banner of rebellion and called in the King of Scots to the overthrow of his owne native country, what time as King Henrie the Second had rashly and inconsideratly digged, as it were, his owne grave, by investing his sonne King in equall authority with himselfe. But his rebellion was in the end quenched with bloud, and this Castle quite dismantled, so that beside a ditch and rampier I could see nothing there of a Castle. Another firebrand also of rebellion flamed out heere in the reigne of Henrie the Seventh. For when the unruly commons tooke it most grievously that a light subsidie granted by the States of the Kingdome in Parliament was exacted of them, and had driven away the Collectors thereof, forthwith (as it is commonly seene that Rashnes speeding once well can never keep a mean nor make an end) they violently set upon Henrie Percy, Earle of Northumberland, who was Lieutenant of these parts, and slew him in this place; and, having John Egremond to be their leader, tooke armes against their country and their Prince. But a few daies after they felt the smart of their lawlesse insolencie grievously and justly as they had deserved. Heere hard by are Soureby and Brakenbake, belonging to a very ancient and right worshipfull family of the Lascelles. Also more Southward Sezay, sometime of the Darels (from whence a great family branched) and afterwards the Dawnies, who for a long time flourished heere maintaining the degree and dignity of Knights right worthily.

54. The first and onely Earle of York (after William Mallet and one or two Estotevils of the Norman bloud, who they say were Sheriffes by inheritance) was Otho sonne to Henry Leo, Duke of Bavar and Saxony, by Maude the daughter of Henry the Second, King of England, who was afterwards proclaimed Emperour and stiled by the name of Otho the Fourth. From whose brother William, another sonne of Maud, are descended the Dukes of Brunswicke and Luneburgh in Germanie, who for a token of this their kinred with the Kings of England give the same Armes that the first Kings of England of Norman bloud bare, to wit two Leopards or Lions Or in a shield Gueles. Long after, King Richard the Second created Edmund of Langley, fift sonne of King Edward the Third, Duke of Yorke, who by a second daughter of Peter King of Castile and of Leon had two sonnes. Edward, the eldest, in his fathers lifetime was first Earle of Cambridge, afterwards Duke of Aumarle, and in the end Duke of Yorke: who manfully fighting in the battaile at Agincourt in France lost his life, leaving no children, and Richard, his second sonne, Earle of Cambridge, who having married Anne sister of Edmund Mortimer, whose grand-mother likewise was the onely daughter of Leonell Duke of Clarence, and practising to advance Edmund his wives brother to the roiall dignity, was streightwaies intercepted and beheaded, as if hee had beene corrupted by the French to destroy King Henry the Fifth. Sixteene yeeres after, his sonne Richard was restored in bloud through the exceeding but unadvised favour of King Henry the Sixth, as being sonne to Richard Earle of Cambridge, brother to Edward Duke of Yorke, and cousin also to Edmund Earle of March. And now, beeing Duke of Yorke, Earle of March and of Ulster, Lord of Wigmore, Clare, Trim, and Conaught, he bare himselfe so loftie that shortly he made claime openly in Parliament against King Henry the Sixth, as in his owne right, for the crowne, which he had closely affected by indirect courses before in making complaintes of the misgovernment of the state, spreading seditious rumours, scattering libels abroade, complotting secret conspiracies, and stirring up tumults, yea and open warres, laying downe his title thus, as being the sonne of Anne Mortimer, who came of Philip the daughter and sole heire of Leonel Duke of Clarence, third sonne of King Edward the Third, and therefore to bee preferred by very good right in succession of the Kingdome, before the children of John of Gaunt the fourth sonne of the said Edward the Third. And when answere was made unto him that the Nobles of the realme and the Duke himselfe had sworne allegeance unto the King; that the Kingdome by authority of Parliament had beene conferred and entailed upon Henry the Fourth and his heires; that the Duke, claiming his title from the Duke of Clarence, never tooke upon him the Armes of the Duke of Clarence; that Henry the Fourth held the crowne in right from King Henry the Third, hee easily avoided all these allegations: namely, that the said oth unto the King, taken by Mans law, was in no wise to bee performed, whenas it tended to the suppression of the truth and right, which stand by the law of God; that there was no need of Parliamentary authority to entaile the crowne and kingdome unto the Lancastrians, neither would they themselves seeke for it so, if they had stood upon any right thereto. As for the Armes of the Duke of Clarence, which were his by right, hee forbare of purpose to give them untill then, like as he did to claime his right to the Imperiall crowne. And as for the right or title derived from King Henry the Third, it was a meere ridiculous devise and manifest untruth to cloake the violent usurpation of Henry the Fourth, and therefore condemned of all men. Albeit these plees in the behalfe of the Duke of Yorke stood directly with law, yet for remedie of imminent dangers the matter was ordered thus by the wisedome of the Parliament: that Henry the Sixth should enjoy the right of the kingdome for tearme of life only, and that Richard Duke of Yorke should bee proclaimed heire apparant of the kingdome, he and his heires to succeed after him, provided alwaies that neither of them should plot or practise ought to the destruction of the other. Howbeit the Duke immediatly was transported so headlong with ambition that he went about to preoccupate and forestall his owne hopes, and so he raised that deadly warre between the houses of Yorke and Lancaster, distinguished by the white and red rose, wherein himselfe soone after lost his life at Wakefield, King Henry the Sixth was foure times taken prisoner, and the end despoiled both of his kingdome and life. Edward Earle of March, sonne to the said Richard, obteined the crowne, and, being deposed from the same, recovered it againe (thus inconstant fortune disported her selfe, lifting up and throwing downe Princes at her pleasure), many Princes of the roiall bloud and a number of the Nobility lost their lives. Those hereditary and rich Provinces in France belonging to the Kings of England were lost, the wealth of the realme wholy wasted, and the poore people thereof overwhelmed with al manner of misery. Edward, now beeing established in his royal throne and in the ranke of Kings carrying the name of Edward the Fourth, gave unto Richard his second sonne the title of Duke of Yorke, who together with King Edward the Fifth his brother was by their unkle Richard the Third murdered. Then King Henry the Seventh granted the same title unto his yonger sonne, who afterwards was crowned King of England by the name of Henry the Eight. And even now of late King James invested Charles his second sonne (whom before hee had created in Scotland Duke of Albany, Marquesse of Romond, Earle of Rosse and Baron of Ardmanoch), a child not full foure yeeres of age, Duke of Yorke, by cincture of a sword, imposition of a cap and coronet of gold upon his head, and by delivering unto him a vierge of gold , after he had according to the order with due complements made the day before both him and eleven more of Noble parentage Knights of the Bath.

Reckoned there are in this County Parishes 459, under which be very many chappels, for number of inhabitants aequall unto great Parishes.


THE rest of this Country, which lieth toward the North-west and carrieth a great compasse, is called Richmondshire or Richmount shire, taking the name from a Castle which Alan Earle of little Britaine had built, unto whom William the Conquerour gave this shire (which before time belonged to Eadwin and Englishman) by these short letters Patents, as it is it set downe on the booke of Richmond Fees. I William surnamed Bastard, King of England, doe give and grant unto thee my Nephew Alane Earle of Britaine, and to thine heires for ever, all and every the manour houses and lands which late belonged to Earle Eadwine in Yorkeshire, with the knights fees and other liberties and customes, as freely and in as honorable wise as the said Eadwin held the same. Given at our leaguer before the City of Yorke.

56. This shire most of it lieth very high, with ragged rockes and swelling mountaines, whose sloping sides in some places beare good grasse, the botomes and vallies are not altogether unfruitfull. The hilles themselves within are stored with lead, pit-coale, and coper. For in a Charter of King Edward the Fourth there is mention made of a Mine or Delfe of copper neere unto the very towne of Richmond. But covetousnesse, which driveth men even as far as Hell, hath not yet perced into these mountaines, as also in other places stone like unto sea winkles or cockles and other sea fish, if they bee not the wonders of nature, I will with Orosius a Christian Historiographer deeme them to be undoubted tokens of the generall deluge that surrounded the face of the whole earth in Noahs time. When the sea (saith he) in Noahs daies overflowed all the earth and brought a generall floud, so that, the whole globe thereof being therewith surrounded and covered, there was one face, as of the firmament, so also of the sea. The soundest writers most evidently teach that all mankinde perished, a few persons excepted, who by vertue of their faith were reserved alive for offspring and propagation. Howbeit even they also have witnessed that some there had beene who, although they were ignorant of the times past and knew not the Author Himselfe of times, yet gathered conjecturally as much by giving a guesse by those rough stones which were we are wont to finde on hilles remote from the sea, resembling Cocles and Oysters, yea and oftentimes eaten in hollow with the waters.

57. Where this Country bordereth upon Lancashire, amongst the mountaines it is in most places so wast, solitary, unpleasant, and unsightly, so mute and still also, that the borderers dwelling thereby have called certaine riverets creeping this waie Hel-becks. But especially that above the head of the river Ure, which having a bridge over it of one entier stone, falleth downe such a depth that it striketh in a certaine horror to as many as looke downe. And in this tract there be safe harbors for goates and Deere, as well red as fallow, which for their huge bignesse with their ragged and branching hornes are most sightly. The river Ure, which we have often spoken of before, hath his fall here out of the Western mountaines, and first of all cutting through the midest of the vale called Wentesdale whiles it is yet but small, as beeing neere unto his springhead, where great flocks of sheepe doe pasture, and which in some places beareth lead stones plentifully, is increased by a little river comming out of the South called Baint, which with a great noise streameth out of the poole Semer. At the very place where these rivers meet, and where there stand a few small cottages, which of the first bridge made over Ure they call Baintbrig, there lay in old time a garizon of the Romans, whereof the very reliques are at this day remaining. For on top of an hill, which of a fort or Burge they now call Burgh, appere the groundworkes of an ancient hold conteining about five acres of ground in compasse, and beneath it East-ward many tokens of some old habitation and dwelling places. Where, amongst many other signes of Roman antiquity, I have seene of late this fragment of an antique inscription in a very faire letter, with Winged Victory supporting the same:


By this we may guesse that the said hold at Burgh was in times past named Bracchium, which before time had beene made of turfe, but now built with stone and the same laied with good morter. Also, that the Sixth Cohort of the Nervians lay there in garison, who may seeme to have had also their place of Summer aboade in that high hill hard by, fensed with a banke and trench about it, which now they tearme Ethelbury. And not long since there were digged up the statue of Aurelius Commodus the Emperor, who, as Lampridius writeth, was surnamed by his flattering clawbackes Britannicus, even when the Britans would have elected an Emperor against him. And then, it may seeme, was this statue of his set up, when he, prizing himselfe more than a man, proceeded to that folly that hee gave commandement he should be called The Roman Hercules, Jupiters sonne. For he was portraied in the habite of Hercules, and his right hand armed with a club, under which there lay, as I have heard such a mangled inscription as this, broken heere and there with voide places betweene: the draught whereof was badly taken out, and before I came hither was utterly spoiled.

..................CAESARI AVGVSTO

58. This was to be seene in Nappa an house built with turrets, and the cheife seat of the Medcalfs, thought to be at this day the greatest family for multitude of the same name in all England. For I have heard that Sir Christopher Medcalfe Knight, and the top of his kinred, beeing of late high-Sherife of the shire, accompanied with three hundred men of the same house, all on horsback and in a livery, met and received the Justices of Assizes, and so brought them to Yorke. From hence runneth Ure downe amaine, full of Creifishes ever since Sir Christopher Medcalfe in our remembrance brought that kinde of fish hither out of the South part of England, and betweene two rockes, whereof the place is named Att-scarre, it runneth headlong downe not far from Bolton, a stately castle, the ancient seat of the Barons Scrops, and which Richard le Scrope and Chancellour of England under King Richard the Second, built with exceeding great cost; and now, bending his course Eastward, commeth to Midelham, the honour whereof (as wee read in the Genealogie or Pedigree of the Nevills) Alan Earle of Richmond bestowed upon his younger brother Rinebald, with all the lands which before their comming belonged to Gilpatrick the Dane. His nephew by is sonne Raulph, named Robert Fitz-Ralph, had all Wentesedale also by gift of Conan Earle of Britaine and of Richmond, and at Midleham raised a most strong castle. His sonne Ranulph erected a little Abbay for Chanons at Coverham (now called short, Corham) in Coverdale, whose sonne Ralph had a daughter named Mary, who, beeing wedded to Robert Lord Nevill, with this marriage translated this very faire and large inheritance as her portion into the family of Nevils. Which Robert Nevil, having had many children by his wife, was taken in adultery unknowne, and by the husband of the adultresse being for revenge bereft of his genitours [genitals], shortly after died with extremity of paine.

59. Then Ure, after it hath passed a few miles forward, watereth Jervis or Jorvalle Abbay of Cistertians, founded first at Fors, and after translated hither by Stephen Earle of Britaine and Richmund, but now wholy ruinated; and after that Masham, which was the possession of the Scropes of Masham, who as they sprung from the stocke of the Scropes of Bolton, so they were by marriages ingraffed againe into the same. On the other side of this river but more inward standeth Snath, the principall house of the Barons Latimer, who derived their noble descent from George Nevill, younger sonne of Ralph Nevil the first Earle of Westmorland, and hee received this title of honour from King Henry the Sixth when as the ancienter house of the Latimers expired in a female, and so by a continued succession they have flourished unto these our daies, when for default of male issue of the last baron Latimer, that goodly and rich inheritance was divided among his daughters, married into the families of the Percies, Cecils, D'anvers and Cornwallis. Neither are there any other places in this part of the shire worth the naming that Ure runneth by, unlesse it be Tanfeld, the habitation in times past of the Gernegans Knights, from whom it descended to the Marmions, the last of whom left for his heire Amice second wife to John Lord Grey of Rotherfeld, by whom he had two sonnes, John, that assumed the surname of Marmion and died issuelesse, and Robert, who left behinde him one onely daughter and sole heire Elizabeth, wife to Sir Henry Fitz-Hugh, a noble Baron.

60. After this, Ure interteineth the river Swale, so called (as Thomas Spot writeth) of his swiftnesse, unlading it selfe into it with a maine and violent streame: which Swale runneth downe Eastward out of the West mountaines also, scarce five miles above the head of Ure, a river reputed very sacred amongst the ancient English for that it in it, when the English Saxons first embraced Christianity, there in one day baptized with festivall joy by Paulinus the Archbishop of Yorke above tenne thousand men, besides women and little children. This Swale passeth downe along an open vale of good largenesse, which of it is called Swals-dale, having good plenty of grasse, but as great want of wood, first by Marrick, where there stood an Abbay built by the Askses, men in old time of great name; also by Mask, a place full of lead ore. Then runneth it through Richmond, the cheife towne of the Country, having but a smal circuit of walles, but yet by reason of the suburbs lying out in length at three gates well peopled and frequented. which Alan the first Earle thereof built, reposing small trust in Gilling (a place or manour house of his hard by) to withstand the violence of the Danes and English, whom the Normans had despoiled of their inheritance, and hee adorned it with this name, as one would say, The rich mount. Hee fensed it with a wall and a most strong castle which, beeing set upon a rock, from on high looketh downe to Swale, that with a mighty rumbling noise rusheth rather then runneth among the stones. For the said house or manour place of Gilling was more holy in regard of devout religion than sure and strong for any fortification it had, ever since that therein (Beda called it Gethling) Oswy King of Northumberland, being intertained guest-wise, was by his host forelaied [ambushed] and murthered; for the expiation whereof, the said monastery was built, highly accounted of among our ancestours. More Northward, Ravenswath castle sheweth it selfe compassed with a good large wall, but now fallen, which was the seat of the Barons named Fitz-Hugh, extracted from the ancient line of the English nation, who were Lords of the place before the Normans Conquest and lived in great name unto King Henry the Seventh his daies, enriched with faire possessions by marriage with the heires of the noble house of Furneaux and Marmion, which came at last by the females unto the Fienes Lords Dacres in the South, and to the Parrs.

61. Three miles beyond Richmond, Swale runneth by that ancient City which Ptolomee and Antonine call Caturactonium and Catarracton, but Bede Cattaractan, and in another place the village nere unto Catarracta , whereupon I suppose it had the name of Cattaracta, that is, a Flud-fall or water-fall , considering hard by there is a such a fall, but nerer unto Richmond, where Swale rusheth rather than runneth, as I have said, with fooming waters, meeting here and there with rockes whereby his streame is interrupted and broken. And wherefore should he call it the the towne nere unto Catarracta if there were not there a waterfall? That it was in those daies a moist famous City may be gathered out of Ptolomee, because he tooke there an observation of the heavens position. For in the second Booke and 6 chapter of his Great Construction he describeth and setteth downe the 34 Parallele through Cattaractonium in Britaine, and maketh it to bee distant from the Aequator 57 degrees, yet in his Geographical tables he defineth the longest daie to be 18 Aequinoctiall houres, so that by his owne calculation it is distant from the Aequator 58 degrees. But at this day, as said that Poet,

Nothing hath the same
But onely a great name.

For it is but a small village called Catarrick and Catarrick-bridge, howbeit well knowne both by the situation thereof nere unto the High street way which the Romans made, that here passeth over the river, and also by the heapes of rubbish heere and there dispersed, which carry some shew of antiquity, especially about Kettercikswart and Burghale, somewhat farther off from the bridge and more Eastward hard by the river, where we beheld a mighty mount and foure bulwarkes raised as it were with exceeding great labour up to a great height. What sorrow it susteined in times past at the Picts and Saxons hands, when with fire and sword they made foule havock of all the Cities of Britaine, I cannot certainely tell, but it seemeth to have flourished after the Saxon Empire was established (although Bede in every place calleth it vicum , that is, a village ) untill that in the yeere 769 it was set on faire and burnt by Eanred or Beanred the Tyrant, who pittifully mangled the Kingdome of Northumberland. But both he streight after miserably perished by fire, and Cattaractoninum also began to revive againe out of the very ashes. For in the 77 yeere after King Etheldred solemnized heere his marriage with the daughter of Offa King of the Mercians. Notwithstanding, it continued not long in a good and flourishing estate, for in that confusion immediatly ensuing of the Danes, who laied all wast, it was quite destroied.

62. Swale driveth on with a long course, not without some lets [obstructions] heere and there in his streame, not farre from Hornby Castle, belonging to the family of Saint Quintin, which afterwards came to the Cogniers, and seeth nothing besides fresh pastures, country houses, and villages, unlesse it be Bedal, standing by another river running unto him. Which Bedall glorieth much of a Baron it had named Sir Brian Fitz-Alan, who flourished in the daies of King Edward the First in regard of his worth and his ancient nobility, as descended from the Earles of Britaine and Richmond. But for default of heires males, the inheritance came by the daughters to Stapletons and the Greies of Rotherfeld.

63. By this time Swale, having left Richmondshire behind, cometh neere unto Ure or Ouse, where hee visiteth Topcliffe the chiefe seat of the Percies. Marianus calleth it Taden-clife , who writeth that in the yeere of our Redemption 949 the States of Northumberland bound themselves there by an oath of allegiance unto King Eldred the West-Saxon, And at the very confluence of these rivers standeth Mitton, a small village but remarkable by no small slaughter. For the Scotish in the yere 1319, when the pestilence had consumed in maner all the manhood of England, having made an inrode thus farre robbing and ransacking all where they came, soone discomfited and put to flight no small powre of priests and country people which the Archbishop of York had led forth with banner displaied into the field. But to returne backe againe to our matter. From Cataractonium the high street or Port way divideth it selfe in twaine. Where it taketh Northward, it leadeth by Caldwell and Aldburgh, which betokeneth an old Burrowgh. By what name it was knowen in ancient times I cannot easily guesse. By the great ruins it should seeme to have beene some notable place, and neere at hand there is seene a ditch by Stanwig a little village, that runneth eight miles in length betweene the river Tees and Swale. Where the said high way goeth Northwestward about twelve miles off, you meet with Bowes, which is also written Bough, now a little village, where in the ages aforegoing the Earles of Richmond had a prety Castelet, a certaine custome called Thorough-toll, and their furcas , i .e. powre to hang. But that in old time it was called in Antonines Itinerarie Lavatrrae and Levatrae, both the account of distance and the site thereof by the high street, which heere is evidently apparent by the ridge thereof, doe easily prove. But that which maketh much to confirme the antiquitie of it is an ancient large Stone in the Church, sometimes used by them for an altar stone, with this inscription upon it to the honor of Hadrian the Emperour:

NO AVG. PONT. MAXM. .................
COS. I ................ P. P. COH IIII F. .............

This fragment also was there digged up:


64. Whiles under Severus the Emperour Virius Lupus ruled as Lieuntenant Generall and Propraetor of Britaine, the first Cohort of the Thracians lay heere in garison: for whose sake he reedified the Bath or Hote house, as appeereth by this inscription, which from hence hath beene translated to Cunnington, unto the house of that right worshipfull and learned Sir Robert Cotton, Knight;


Heere must I cause them to forgoe their error who by this inscription falsely copied forth, whiles the read untruly BALINGIUM for BALINIUM, are of opinion that the name of the place was BALINGIUM. But if a man looke neerer to the words, hee shall find it most evidently engraven in the stone BALINEUM: which word they used in old time, as the learned know, for BALNEUM, that is a Bath or Hotehouse , who also are not ignorant that souldiers, as well as others, used ordinarily to bath, both for health and cleanlinesse, as who every day, before they did eate, in that age were wont to bath, as also that such like bathing houses both publicke and private were made every where with so great cost and superfluous excesse that he thought himselfe poore and a very begger, who had not on the walles of his bathing house resplendent with great and costly embossed Glasses. In which Bathes men and women both washed one with another, albeit this had oftentimes beene prohibited as well by the Imperiall lawes as the Synodall decrees. In the declining estate of the Roman Empire the Company or Band of the Exploratores with their Captaine kept their station here under the dispose of the Generall of Britaine, as appeereth for certaine out of the Notice of Provinces , where it is named Lavatres. But wheras such Bathes as these were called also in Latin lavacra , some Criticke, no doubt, will pronounce that this place was named Lavatriae in steed of Lavacria. Yet would I rather have it take the name of a little river running neere by, which, as I hare say, is called laver. As for the latter name Bowes, considering the old towne heere was burnt downe to the ground (as the inhabitants with one voice doe report), I would thinke it grew upon that occasion. For that which is burnt with fire the Britans still at the day doe terme boeth , and by the same word the Suburbes of Chester beyond the river Dee, which the Englishmen call Hanbridge, the Britans or Welshmen named Treboth , that is, The burnt towne, because in a tumult of the Welshmen it was consumed with fire.

65. Heere beginneth to rise that high hilly and solitary country exposed to wind and raine, which, because it is stony, is called in our native language Stanemore. All heere round about is nothing but a wild desert, unlesse it be an homely Hostelrie, rather than an Inne, in the very mids thereof, called the Spitle on Stanmore, for to entertaine waifaring persons, and neere to it is a fragment of a crosse, which we call Rerecross, the Scots Reicrosse, as one would say The Kings Crosse. Which Crosse Hector Boetius the Scotish writer recordeth to have beene erected as a meere [boundary] stone confining England and Scotland, what time as King William the Conquerour granted Cumberland and unto the Scots on this condition, that they should hold it of him as his tenants and not attempt any thing prejudiciall or hurtfull to the Crowne of England. And a litle lower, upon the Romans high street, there stood a little fort of the Romans built four square, which at this day they call Maiden-casle. from whence, as the Borderers reported, the said High way went with many windings in and out as farre as to Caer Vorran in Northumberland.

66. There have beene divers Earles of Richmond according as the princes favour enclined, and those out of divers families, whom I will notwithstanding set downe as exactly and truly as I can in their right order. The first Earles were out of the house of little Britaine in France, ?whose descent is confusedly intricate amongst their owne writers for that there were two principall Earles once, one of Haulte Britaine and another of Base Britaine for many yeres, and every one of their children had a part in Gavellkind [the equal division of a patrimony] and were stiled Earles of Britaine without distinction.? But of these the first Earle of Richmond, according to our writers and Records, was Alane ?surnamed Feregaunt , that is,? The Red, ?sone of Hoel Earle of Britaine, ?descended from Hawise great Awnt to William Conquerour, who gave this country unto him by name of the lands of Earle Eadwin in Yorkshire, and withall bestowed his daughter upon him, by whom he had no issue. He built Richmond Castle, as is before specified, to defend himselfe from disinherited and outlawed Englishmen in those parts, and dying left Britaine to his sonne Conan Le Grosse by a second wife.? But Alan the Balcke ?sonne of Eudo sonne of Geffrey Earle of of Britaine and Hawise aforesaid,? succeeded in Richmond, and he, ?having no child,? left to Stephen ?his brother.? This Stephen begat Alan ?surnamed Le Sauvage , his sonne and successour, who assisted King Stephen against Maude the Empresse in the battaile at Lincolne, and married Bertha one of the heires of Conan Le Grosse Earle of Hault Britaine, by whom he had Conan Let Petit Earle of both Britaines by haereditary right, as well as of Richmond.? Hee by the assistance of King Henrie the Second of England dispossessed Eudo Vicount of Porhouet his father in lawe, ?who usurped the title of Britaine in right of the said Bertha his wife, and ended his life leaving onely one daughter Constance by Margaret sister to Malcolme King of Scots.? Geffray third sonne ?was advanced by his father to the marriage of the said Constance, whereby he was Earle of Britaine and Richmond,? and begat of her Arthur who succeeded him, and ?as the French write? was made away by King John his unkle. True it is indeede that for this cause the French called King John into question as Duke of Normandie. And notwithstanding he was absent, and not heard once to plead, neither confessing ought nor convicted, yet by a definitive sentence they condemned him and awarded from him Normandie and his possessions in France, albeit himselfe had promised, under safe conduct, to appeere in personally at Paris, there to make answere as touching the death of Arthur, who as a liege subject had bound himselfe by oath to bee true and loyall unto him, and yet started backe from his allegeance, raised a rebellion, and was taken prisoner in battaile. At which time this question was debated, whether the Peeres of France might give judgement of a King annointed, and therefore superiour, considering that a greater dignity drowneth the lesse, and now one and the same person was both King of England and Duke of Normandie. But whither do I digresse? After Arthur, there succeeded orderly in the Earldome of Richmond Guy Vicount of Thouars, unto whom the foresaid Constance was secondly married. Ranulph the third, Earle of Chester, the third husband of the said Constance. Peter of Dreux descended from the bloud roiall of France, who wedded Alice the onely daughter of Constance by her husband abovenamed Guy. Then upon dislike of the house of Britaine, Peter of Savoy, Unkle by the mothers side unto Eleonor the wife of King Henrie the Third was made Earle of Richmond, who for feare of the Nobles and Commons of England that murmured against strangers preferred to honours in England, voluntarily surrendred up this Honour, which was restored to John Earle of Britaine sonne to Peter of Dreux. After whom succeeded John his sonne, the first Duke of Britaine, who wedded Beatrice daughter to Henrie the Third King of England. Whose sonne Arthur was Duke of Britaine and, as some write, Earle of Richmond. Certes, John of Britaine is younger brother, immediatly after the fathers death, bare this honorable title. And he added unto the ancient Armes of Drewx with the canton of Britaine the Lions of England in Bordeur. He was Gardian of Scotland under King Edward the Second, and there taken and detained prisoner for three yeeres space, and died at length without issue in the reigne of Edward the Third. And John Duke of Britaine, his nephew, the sonne of Arthur, succeeded in this Earldome. After his decease without children, ?when there was hote contention about the Dutchie of Britaine betweene John Earle of Montford of the halfe brother and Joane his brothers daughter and heire of the whole bloud, married to Charles of Bloys,? King Edward the Third, affecting the said John Earle of Montfort and to strengthen his owne party in France, favoured the title of the said John Earle of Montfort for that he was a man and nerer in degree, and therefore seemed to have better right and to be preferred before his Niece ?(to whom the Parliament of France had adjudged it) and what is more for that he sware fealty to him as King of France for the Dutchie of Britaine.? In these respects hee granted the Earldome of Richmond unto the said John untill he might recover is owne possessions in France, which being soone after recovered by aid of the English, the said King bestowed it upon John of Gaunt his sonne. And he afterward surrendred it againe into the King his fathers hands for other possessions. Who forthwith created John Earle of Montford Duke of Britaine, surnamed the Valiaunt Earle of Richmond, unto whom he had given his daughter to wife, that therby he might more surely oblige unto him a warlike person, and then ill affected to the French. But in his Earldome because he adhered unto the French King against England, howbeit he kept still the bare title and left it unto his posterity. But the possession was granted to Dame Joane of Britaine his sister, and the widdow of Ralph Lord Basset of Draiton. After her decease first Ralph Nevill Earle of Westmorland had the Castle and Earledome of Richmond for the tearme of his owne life by the gift of King Henry the Fourth. And after him John Duke of Bedford. Then King Henrie the Sixth conferred the title of Earle of Richmond upon Edmund of Hadham his halfe brother by the mothers side, with this speciall and peculiar prerogative, To take his place in Parliament next unto Dukes. After him succeeded Henrie his sonne, who was King of England by the name of Henrie the Seventh. But turing his exile George Duke of Clarence and Richard Duke of Glocester received the Seignorie of Richmond, but not the title, from their brother King Edward the Fourth. Last of all Henrie the base sonne of King Henrie the Eighth was by his father invested Duke of Richmond, who departed this life without issue 1535. ?As for Sir Thomas Grey, who was made Baron of Richmount by King Henrie the Sixth, was not Lord of this Richmond, but of a place in Bedfordshire called Rugemound and Richmount Greies.?

There are contained in this shire parishes 104 beside Chapells.

William Camden, Britain, or, a Chorographicall Description of the most flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland (London: George Bishop and John Norton, 1610) Copyright 2004 by Dana F. Sutton. This text was transcribed by Professor Sutton, of the University of California, Irvine, from Philemon Holland's 1610 translation [British Library Short Title Catalogue 4509, Early English Books reel 911:1]. For a full critical edition presenting Camden's original Latin text in parallel with Holland's translation, visit Professor Sutton's site at:


Placename mark-up by Humphrey Southall.

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