Picture of Arthur Young

Arthur Young


places mentioned

11th to 20th September 1776: Cork

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SEPTEMBER 11th, accompanied Mr. Aldworth and family to his neighbour, Mr. Hyde's, on the banks of the Black Water, which are very chearful, any many of the views fine, particularly from the yard of a new church on the river: pass many large woods in sight. Mr. Hyde's is a place entirely of his own forming. The lawn before the house has a very pleasing inequality of surface, and the whole scenery well improved and chearful.

IT was with regret I left so agreeable and liberal a family as that of Annsgrove, nor should I forget to mention that every thing about the place had a much nearer resemblance to an English than an Irish residence, where so many fine places want neatness , and where, after great expence, so little is found complete. Mrs. Aldworth has ornamented a beautiful glen, which winds behind the house, in a manner that does honour to her taste; she has traced her paths so as to command all the beauties of rock, wood, and a sweet river which glides beneath both: it is a most agreeable scenery.

SEPTEMBER 12th, to Doneraile with Mr. Aidworth. In our way called on a woollen manufacturer, Mr. Hannam, at Kilbrack, who gave me the following particulars of the trade. It consists in buying the wool about the country, and combing it upon their own account. The combers earn 10s. a week, or 40 balls at 3d. The fleeces he buys weighs 5lb. on an average. To every 22 stone of rough fleece there are 3 stone of short, coarse, and waste; 2 stone of the 3 are worth 10S. a stone, for coarse works, frizes, &c. the third stone 13s. 4d. The remaining 19 stone of combing wool give 8 balls each of 24 ounces. To each stone there is one pound and three quarters of pinions of short wool that comes out in the combing. These balls are given to women to spin, and 9d. a ball is paid them for it; a woman can spin the balls in two days and a half if she sticks to it all day; in three days and do trifles besides. Then the worsted, in skains twelve to the ball, is sent to Cork or Limerick for exportation. Not above one-sixth part, to his knowledge, is woven at home. Employs seven weavers making serges. 44 beer serges sell at 1s. 2d. a yard, 29 inches broad, and the pieces 136 yards long. He pays 2d. a yard for weaving ; and a man weaves eight in a day; weaves a piece in three weeks, and loses one day in that time in preparing his loom. The Connaught wool preferred; it is of a middling length, and a fine staple : the short wool the finest. At Charleville there are 30 looms. The serges are all sent to Dublin to a factor, who sells them at 5l. per cent. commission. Are in general sent to Scotland. The demand for them is better than it was : it has been improving for three years. But the prices of both serges and worsted have not risen proportionally to that of wool.

An Estimate of the Cloathing Trade.

. s. d.
20 Combers would comb in a year 5000 stone of wool, at 16s per stone 4000 0 0
  The said combers would comb 800 balls a week, at 3d. per ball, comes to 10l. in the year 520 0 0
300 Women and girls to spin the above, and which would be the advantage of the clothier, to form into three houses or factories of 100 each; their hire, at 9d. a ball, comes to 1560 0 0
60 Weavers would weave up the said worsted, at 8d. each a day, 24l. a week, the year 1248 0 0
50 Little boys and girls employed in said weaving, at 3d. a day each, comes to 3l. 15s. per week, in the year 195 0 0
430        
  Oil and soap would cost in the year 368 0 0
  Carriage of wool, woollen goods, &c. 100 0 0
  Sorting wool, washing it, &c. 80 0 0
  The year's profit I suppose to be 350 0 0
  The yearly sum brought into the country where such trade is carried on 8421 0 0

A VERY important information is to be drawn from this estimate, which is the proportion of labour to the wool in this manufactory.

            . s. d.
Wool. At 16s.           4000 0 0
    . s. d.    
Combing   520 0 0    
Spinning   1560 0 0    
Weaving   1443 0 0    
Sorting and carriage   180 0 0    
Labour           3703 0 0
Oil and soap           368 0 0
            8071 0 0

HENCE therefore it appears that wool at 16s. labour and drugs equal it, and that labour alone is as 9. to 10.

LET me not forget here to remark, that the country, within two or three miles of Doneraile, ranks among the best I have seen in Ireland; it is varied, much improved, well wooded, and very chearful.

To Lord Doneraile's, to whom I am indebted for a variety of useful intelligence; the situation of his house is on a beautiful rising ground, which slopes down to a winding vale, in which is a small river, accompanied by wood; from this river, on the other side, the grounds (all lawn) rise very boldly, and are entirely margined with wood: from the higher ones the view of the house and park is fine, especially at the gate which opens to Kilbrack, there the house is seen surrounded by very noble woods and a great variety of cultivated inclosures, intermixed with fields and thickly-planted hedges; the whole scene so pleasing, that it appeared to full advantage, though I had rode to it through a beautiful and even-dressed country in part of the way from Annsgrove. Near the house is a shrubbery, through which there are paths that lead to different parts of the farm, through new plantations, and in particular to a cottage, from whence there is a finely wooded scene, with the park lawn rising above it, scattered with single trees, and bounded by a margin of wood; the whole backed by distant mountains. The plantations and improvements which lead to and surround this cottage were the work of Lady Doneraile, and do credit to her taste.

RESPECTING his Lordship's husbandry, the following particulars deserve the attention of the reader. Three years ago he procured ewes from Leicestershire, in order to improve the breed. The sheep which were here before took three to a stone of wool, but now only two, and the wool is to the full as good as ever; and he finds that they are much more thriving and advantageous to keep, and easier fed than the sheep of the country: sheep, his Lordship finds the most advantageous stock of all others: he keeps six to the acre winter and summer. This he finds much more profitable than cows or fat cattle. Has tried many breeds of cattle, and finds that the long-horned English cow is the best for fattening. The Holderness for giving much thin poor milk, but are too heavy for winter feeding. The Kerry cow is much the best for milking in quantity of good milk. Hogs he has also tried of all sorts, and finds that nothing is so profitable as the black Indian breed with short legs, round carcases, and snub noses. For working, he finds the small mongrel Kerry beast works the best, and moves the fastest. He works them all by the horns, in the manner practised in the south of France, four in a plough at the first ploughing. He changed the manner in which Lord Shannon brought it over, from the yoke which couples them, to going single with double traces; this he finds much the most beneficial manner; they move quicker and with greater power, from being free and working not in couples; besides being applicable to all sorts of work which requires their going single. English waggons Lord Doneraile has tried and laid aside, from finding, on experience, that they are very much inferior to the common Irish car in hay harvest, dung, lime, &c. but he uses one-horse carts for many sorts pf work, Turnips he has cultivated for some years, hoes them, and gets good crops, but best in the drill way, the rows two feet asunder: he uses them in feeding sheep, and also fattening beasts. He finds that they are not of any considerable use in this country, compared to others where there is not an equal plenty of grass, which springs all winter. When most wanted, which is in april and the beginning of may, they are gone. Cabbages he has tried upon a large scale three years; last year and the year before, he had eight or nine acres, and used them in feeding and fattening cattle and sheep ; has found them preferable to turnips far, in all uses in feeding cattle; but an acre of the latter will produce much more. Fern he finds is best destroyed by mowing it twice a year in june and the beginning of september. He makes his tillage exceedingly profitable by the use of lime. His course of crops,

1. Wheat, yielding 10 barrels per acre, and has measured 15 barrels, 15 stone per acre. 2. Barley, the produce 14 or 15 barrels, and of small six rowed barley 20. 3. Oats, 20 barrels. 4. Clover laid down for grass, or for one year, and ploughed it up as soon as cleared for the hay.

LIME he spreads on all lands for wheat, barley, &c. 80 barrels of roach an acre cost 6d. a barrel burning. The effect is amazingly great, insomuch that it is the difference between a great and a bad crop. In general there is no ground worth 20s. an acre, that if you lime at 80 barrels, and take wheat, barley, and oats, it will then be worth 30s. This is certainly a marvelous improvement! Lord Doneraile knows, from an experiment of his brother's, that it is equally well adapted to boggy bottoms; he had five acres, which he let for 10s. 6d. the whole, and was so hard a bargain to the poor men, that an allowance was made for it. His brother took it, and limed it, and then mowed five tons of hay per English acre! In his Lordship's park he has a wheel for raising water, an improvement on the Persian, which raises a regular steam 28 feet; the stream which turns it is confined by a double wall to the exact dimension of the boxes, which take in the water, and it works constantly and regularly without trouble or expence. Lord Doneraile has erected a granary upon a new construction, that of a flue in the walls for a fire to air the whole building, and dry any damp corn that may happen to be in it. He dried the walls after building with it perfectly in a short time. This granary is so completely built, that not a mouse can possibly get in it: it has a thorough air with lattice windows of wire. By the way, these flues are a proof, if one was wanting, how much moister the climate of Ireland is than that of England. He has planted the cluster potatoe, called here bulls and bucks , so much as six or seven acres; gave them to horses, cows, and sheep: the horses that would eat them did well, and in a little time believes would all come very well to them. Fat cows and bullocks did exceedingly well: fat sheep were put to them; but several dying both years, made him leave the practice off. Of other sorts of potatoes, he finds the London lady and the apple to be the best sorts. The London lady is particularly valuable for one circumstance, which is the stalks withering, and the crop being ready to take up, from a month to six weeks before any other sort; consequently, the best sort to plant as a preparative to wheat. Hops he has planted two years ago, in order to see how far they will answer; and expects to be able to get not only good hops, but a great crop. One mode of managing them he has in meditation, which is a good thought,, and that is to train them horizontally instead of perpendicularly, like espaliers, on account of the storms and blights which hops, in the common way, are subject to from the height. Has compared the rotten lime-stone and lime in a 20 acred field for wheat, 10 of the one and 10 of the other, and found the wheat equal, both very good. Has observed the common farmers, after manuring with it, to take 12 and 14 crops of white corn running; and then leaving it for grass, which not coming, they complain that it is not good for grass, but burns it up. But Lord Doneraile advised a friend to lay down, after two or three crops, which being done, the grass that followed was perfectly fine.

His Lordship's lime-kiln is one of the completest I have any where seen; it is at bottom 16 inches diameter, leads up to 12 feet wide in the widest part, 20 feet high from the bottom, 7 feet from thence up, and at the top 9 feet diameter. Over the top, a roof and a porch to it, and it draws 44 barrels of roach lime a day, which takes 6 of culm; burns for 5d. & barrel. The culm 2s. 5d. a barrel at the kiln. Labour 4s. and culm 15s. a day.

SEPTEMBER 13th, left Doneraile, and went to Col. Jephson's at Mallow. He was at that time confined with the gout; but his son, Denham Jephson, Esq; (member for Mallow) took every means for my information, in the circumstances I enquired after. About that place the courses are,

1. Potatoes on stubbles, or grass dunged. 2. Potatoes. 3. Wheat or bere. 4. Oats. 5. Oats. 6. Oats.

1. Fallow. 2. Wheat. 3. Oats. 4. Oats. 5. Oats. 6. Oats. The measure the English acre.

OF potatoes they plant 6 common barrels, and get 42: sometimes take three or four successive crops. Of wheat they sow three pecks and a half each three cluggets , each clugget 11 quarts, and get 8 barrels. The crop of bere is 12. Of oats 12. Rents of town parks 2l. 2s. to 3l. other lands 10s. to 30s. average 12s. There are many dairies, up to 60 cows, which are all let to dairymen, at 50s. to 3l. 10s. of good land it will take one acre and a half to feed a cow. They make both butter and cheese, but where the latter is made, no butter, selling the cheese at 4d. a pound. A cow makes one cwt. of butter in the season. When cows are let, none are taken that do not give two gallons of milk; good cows give four gallons. Col. Jephson had a cow half bred, between the English long-horned and Holdernesse, that was forced to be milked three times a day, and gave 12 gallons a day, many times in the presence of various persons. Every dairyman is allowed a house, a garden of one acre and a half, and grass for a horse, a cow, and some a collop of sheep. Great quantities of lime are used; they lay 100 barrels an acre at 1s. 1d. They plough with horses, four or six to a plough. The poor pay 10s. rent for a cabbin, and 20s. for one acre for potatoes; 2l. 2s. for grass for a cow, and 10s. for the winter's hay. They live upon potatoes generally the year through; all of them keep cows and pigs, which latter they feed on small potatoes. Their circumstances are not better than 20 years ago: for though they have now 6d. and then had but 5d. yet the rise is not proportioned to that of rents. Villages of cottars will take farms in partnership in the manner I have often described. The soil of the country is in general lime-stone; but from Knockerera mountain, near Mallow to Corke, there is no lime-stone.

LEASES are 31 years, or three lives, and some for three lives and 31 years after; and many farms let to middle men, who occupy no part of the land themselves; but relet it. Above one-third of the county is waste land.

THERE are collieries about 10 miles off, near Kantark, from which coal is sold at 3s. a barrel, it is large and hard. Upon the river Blackwater, there are tracts of flat land in some places one quarter of a mile broad; the grass every where remarkably fine, and lets at 30s. It is the finest sandy land I have anywhere seen, of a reddish brown colour, would yield the greatest arable crops in the world, if in tillage; it is five feet deep, and has such a principle of adhesion, that it burns into good brick, yet it appears a perfect sand. In floods much of it is overflown. The banks of this river, from its source to the sea, are equally remarkable for beauty of prospect, and fertility of soil.

THERE is but little manufacturing in Mallow; even spinning is not general. Mr. Jephson manures his lands very highly with all sorts of dung and fullage of the streets of Mallow, which is constantly bringing away; by means of this regular attention, united with the goodness of the soil, he has brought it into that high degree of heart, indicated by the rent, at which it would let. The whole is divided into fields, of a moderate size, with double quick hedges, well planted with trees, and kept in the most perfect degree of neatness; between the hedges are gravel walks, so that there is a planted communication about all the fields; the gates are neat and light, and every attention preserved to ornament the whole. The quantity of tillage is not considerable, but his crops very great, barley up to 20 barrels per acre. Mules, of which he has some very fine ones, he finds more useful and hardy than horses. Mr. Jephson has weighed to the dragoons, at the barracks, from 28 acres of grass, 3 tons of hay per English acre. He has kept a particular account of his domain, and has fed his deer, horses, cows, house, &c. and sold to the amount of 55s. an acre besides. I walked to the spring in the town to drink the water, to which so many people have long resorted; it resembles that of Bristol, prescribed for the same cases, and with great success. In the season there are two assemblies a week. Lodgings are 5s a week each room, and those seemed to be miserably bad. Board 13s. a week. These prices, in so cheap a country, amazed me, and would, I should fear, prevent Mallow from being so considerable, as more reasonable rates might make it, unless accommodations proportionable were provided. There is a small canal, with walks on each side, leading to the spring, under cover of some very noble poplars. If a double row of good lodging houses were erected here, with public rooms, in an elegant style, Mallow would probably become a place for amusement, as well as health.

SEPTEMBER 14th, to New Grove, the seat of Robert Gordon, Esq; in whom I met the greatest zeal for giving me a correct information. Passed, at some distance, a very large house building, to the right of the road, in a good situation, by Sir Robert Dean. New Grove is an entire new improvement of Mr. Gordon's, the whole place, some years ago, being a waste moor, or mountain, as it is called in Ireland.

MR; Gordon took it for improvement; the soil and bog five to nine spits deep, and under it a black earth, or a reddish sand, and in some a whitish clayey substance, but not marle; many springs in it, which were carried off by drains; and then the whole surface of turf cut out, and carried to Corke; cutting, &c. 30s: a 100, and sold there at 5l. this was done in order so get lime, which is not upon the land, and by this means the lime came to seven-pence halfpenny a barrel; found many stones and great roots, and timbers, which were all cleared away, and the land ploughed with oxen, before winter; then left the winter three ploughings given in the spring, and fifty barrels of lime, spread and sown with oats and clover; the crop very great; could be sold for 4l. an acre; the clover fine; This was cut for hay, and the second weighed 231 lb. per English perch square, and a horse that was starved nine hours, eat in twenty-four hours 107lb: and after these two cuttings, there was a third for soiling with in October: it was then sowed with a second crop of oats, and that with clover which was left, and has been mown every year for eleven years since; this was one field in particular, but all in the same manner, and would let for one pound an acre readily; all expences of the three crops, including the lime, cost 6l. 7s. 9d. an acre, so that the mere improvement was profitable, besides the increase of rent. At Carrick-duff, 650 acres of heaths &c. the black soil thin, and the heath low, and under it a brown loam, with whitish gravel, mixed, were fallowed with strong ploughs, fourteen inches deep, for a year; then limed, 50 barrels an acre, at seven-pence three farthings on the land, burnt on the spot, and upon this oats sowed, and clover for a meadow; the oats great, the grass part of it actually let at 1l. 1s. Has prosecuted this improvement with such spirit, that last year he laid on 10,000 barrels of lime, and has 73 acres of oats, 34 wheat, 12 potatoes, and 100 laid to grass, and all this in two years. Has there built a farm-office, 154 feet long, a barn, stalls for thirty bullocks, two stables, and a room for the steward; and has made 1750 perch of ditches, planted with quicks. These Mr. Gordon does in two years, half the ditch in one to leave it to sink, and the other half the year after. Turnips he has had, and got very fine crops of 6 lb. the average turnip; they thin them by hand, which he thinks upon this land is preferable to hoeing; used the crop in stall-feeding 30 bullocks, which had, besides the turnips, half a hundred weight of hay to fix each day, and found that they throve exceedingly well on such turnips as were not above three to six pounds weight, but upon the large ones they did not thrive. In november he cleared the field of all, stacked them, and they kept perfectly till april. Found that the sheep, fed at New Grove, would not take to turnips till starved to them. Imported a man from Norfolk, to whom he gave forty guineas a year with board, who brought ploughs, hoes, &c. with him; gave him a guinea for every boy he taught to plough, and every boy who could fairly plough had a shilling a day wages. By this means he has collected a set of excellent ploughmen, who have been of infinite use, so that he has to this day ploughed with Norfolk and Suffolk ploughs, worked with a pair of horses, and no driver except the first and second ploughing of fresh land, which, and dragging, he does with great drags of 18cwt. and drawn by bullocks. This improvement is of particular consequence, as there are here twelve miles square of rich land, taken almost in a square between Mallow and Corke, one way, and the Bogra mountains and Nagles the other; upon all which there is not a stone to interrupt the plough, sometimes not a stone to an acre.

HE is convinced, from experience, that the worst of this vast tract may be drained, inclosed, limed with fifty barrels, and tilled with a crop of oats on it, for 5l. an acre. In the neighbourhood, a great improvement of 1200 acres, without lime or gravel, and badly done, yet let at 12s. an acre. Six-7ths of the county of Corke at 2s. an acre, one-7th, 10s. of Kerry, nine-10ths, at 1s. and one-10th, at 10s.

Six years ago, Mr. Gordon established a linen manufactory, and bleach mill, upon the compleatest scale; a factory of eleven looms for damask, bleacher's house, and other buildings, with a reservoir of water for turning the wheel; the whole well-built, well-contrived, and at the expence of 1200l. Kept these looms constantly at work, and at the same time bleached many pieces for the country people. Trusted to a manager for the conduct of the works, who broke, which put a stop to them, otherwise there would have been a flourishing manufactory established. Spinning flax coming in, but the woollen through the country; and from hence to the north-west and Duhallow barony is the great country for spinning cotton.

SEPTEMBER 15th, to Blarney Castle; S. J. Jefferys, Esq; of whose great works in building a town at Blarney, I cannot give so particular an account as I wish to do; for I got there just as he and his family were on the point of setting out for France. I did not however let slip the time I had for making some enquiries, and found that in 1765, when Mr. Jefferys began to build this town, it consisted only of two or three mud cabbins; there are now 90 houses. He first established the linen manufactory, building a bleach-mill, and houses for weavers, &c. and letting them to manufacturers from Corke, who have been so successful in their works, as to find it necessary to have larger and more numerous edifices, such as a large stamping mill for printing linens and cottons, to which is annexed another bleach-mill, and since there has been a third erected; the work carried on is that of buying yarn, and weaving it into linens, ten pence to thirty pence white; also diapers, sheeting, ticking, and linens and cottons of all sorts printed here, for common use and furniture. These several branches of the linen, employ 130 looms, and above 300 hands.

ANOTHER of Mr. Jefferys's objects has been the stocking manufacture, which employs 20 frames, and 30 hands, in buildings erected by him; the manager employing, by covenant, a certain number of apprentices, in order by their being instructed, to diffuse the manufactory. Likewise a woollen manufactory, a mill for milling, tucking, &c. broad cloths; a gigg mill for glossing, smoothing, and laying the grain; and a mill for knapping, which will dress above 500 pieces a year, but will be more, when some alterations now making are finished. A leather mill for dressing shamoy and buck skins fully employed. A large bolting mill, just finished, and let for 132l. a year. A mill, annexed to the same, just finishing, for plating; and a blade mill for grinding edged tools. A large paper mill, which will be finished this year. He has been able to erect this multiplicity of mills, thirteen in all, by an uncommon command of water.

THE town is built in a square, composed of a large handsome inn, and manufacturers houses, all built of excellent stone-lime, and slate. A church, by the first-fruits, and liberal addition of above 300l. from Mr. Jefferys. A market-house, in which are sold a hundred pounds worth of knit stockings per week. Four bridges, which he obtained from the county, and another (the flat arch) to which he contributed a considerable sum. Much has been done, yet is not the design near finished.

To shew the magnitude of these works, and the degree of public good resulting from them, I shall mention the expence at which they have been executed. Respecting the principal bleach mill, Messrs, Forest and Donnoghue, under the linen act, took fifteen acres, at a guinea an acre, upon which they haye expended 5000l. in erecting a linen mill and bleach green, twenty-five houses for twenty-five weavers families, four looms in each house, a large dwelling-house for themselves or their director; in each house, a man, his wife, three apprentices, two girls and two boys, besides infants. In a short time the farm was increased, and land, which before had only brought half a guinea, then let for a guinea. The linen board advanced 500l. to this work, and Mr. Jefferys repaid them 1400l. of the 5000l. The old rent of the premises was 40l. a year, the new rent 71l. Another bleach mill, which cost Mr. Jefferys 300l. to which the board added 300l. and the person to whom it is let, 600l. 40 acres of land, formerly let at 10l. a year, go with them. The whole rent now 80l. To this mill is since added an oat-mill, which cost 300l. two tuck-mills, 200l. a leather mill and kilns, 150l. two dwelling-houses, 300l. A stamping mill, which cost Mr. Jefferys 2,300l. to which the board added 300l. promising 1000l. more when the works should be finished, which they have been these two years. Twelve printing tables are kept going, and sixty-five hands employed. Twelve printers. Twelve tire boys. Three print-cutters. Eighteen bleachmen. Six pencillers. Two tub-men. One clerk. One callender. One manager. Two draughtsmen. four coppermen. Three carters. Besides the above sums, the manufacturer has laid out 500l. The quantity of land occupied is 25 acres: old rent, 6l. 10s. new, 113l. 15s.

A stocking factory, for which Mr. Jefferys lent 200l. The man laid out 300l. himself; he occupies 50 acres, before let at 20l. a year; now at 76l. 11s. A gigg-mill, for which Mr. Jefferys lent 300l. till repaid by the Dublin Society, who granted 300l. towards it, and the tenant laid out 200l. the quantity of land he has is eleven acres, let at 5l. 10s. now at 36l.

A manufactory of tape is established, by which means six acres of land are advanced, from 2l. 8s. to 9l. They have three looms going, which make 102 pieces a day of 36 yards each. The Dublin Society gave 20l. to it. A paper mill, which has cost Mr. Jefferys 1100l. and is not yet let. A bolting mill, on which he has expended 1100l, the tenant 500l. on adding an iron mill. Twenty acres of land, rent before, 9l. 10s. rent of the whole now 132l. 13s. The church has cost Mr. Jefferys 500l. and the first-fruits 500l. more.. The new inn, 250l. and the tennant 300l. more. Seventy acres of land before, at 20l. a year, now at 83l. 9s. A dwelling-house, 250l. to which the tenant added 500l. Ninety acres of land, before let at 54l. the new rent is 74l. Twelve cottages, and a lime-kiln, which cost 280l. Two dwelling-houses and a forge, which cost him 150l. and to which parliament granted 250l. more. Upon the whole, therefore, Mr. Jefferys has expended 7,630l. in these establishments, Of public money there has been added 2,170l. and the tenants themselves laid out 9,050l. in all expended here, 18,850l. besides what Mr. Jefferys laid out on bridges, &c. in the whole, very near, if not full, 20,000l. upon matters of a public nature. In all these establishments, he has avoided undertaking or carrying on any of the manufactures upon his own account, from a conviction that a gentleman can never do it without suffering very considerably. His object was to form a town, to give employment to the people, and so improve the value of his estate by so doing; in all which views it must be admitted, that the near neighbourhood of so considerable a place as Corke very much contributed: the same means which he has pursued would, in all situations, be probably the most adviseable, though the returns made might be less advantageous. Too much can scarcely be said in praise of the spirit with which a private gentleman has executed these works, which would undoubtedly do honour to the greatest fortune.

To animate others to tread in such laudable steps, I may remark, that even the profit of these undertakings is too much to be entirely forgotten; the expences are by no means barren ones; 327 acres let before these works at 167l. 18s. let afterwards at 682l. 8s. Profit 508l. 10s. without reckoning any thing for two dwelling-houses, a forge, twelve cottages, and a lime-kiln, which may moderately be reckoned at 25l. a year, and yet let at rents of favour, in all 533l. 10s. which from 7630l. is 7 per cent. There is no improvement in agriculture that would not, with much greater certainty of continuance, pay 17. At the same time, however, there is a greater reversionary advantage in the benefit resulting; from the increasing of the rents at the expiration of the leases, upon undertaking these works, the longest of which is for no more than three lives. Another advantage which is felt already, is, the rise in the prices of products at Blarney, which is a direct premium to agriculture, to the farmer, and to the landlord. Dairy cows, on all the adjacent farms, arose in two years from 3l. to 4l. a cow, as the weavers were happy to get milk and butter at the same price it sold for in Corke. The same rise took place on corn, potatoes, &c. Mr. Jeffcrys, besides the above establishments, has very much improved Blarney Castle and its environs; he has formed an extensive ornamented ground, which is laid out with considerable taste; an extensive plantation surrounds a large piece of water, and walks lead through the whole; there are several very pretty sequestered spots where covered benches are placed.

ACCOMPANIED Mr. Jefferys, &c. to Dunkettle, the seat of Dominick Trent, Esq; who, with a liberality of sentiment which renders him deservedly esteemed, took every measure I could wish for my information. The road leads very beautifully on the side of the harbour under a shore of bold hills, on which are many villas and some plantations. For the following particulars concerning the neighbourhood, I am indebted to that gentleman.

ON the south side of the river, &c. the soil is a fine lime-stone; the country level for a mile or two, then swelling into very gentle hills. On the north side, which is much better planted, particularly at Lota, Dunkettle, &c. the ground rises in bold ascents, adorned with many beautifully-situated country-houses. Here the stratum is brown, or rather red stone, and the surface shallow; in some places a burning gravel. There is a good deal of arable land on the sides of the hills. The course of crops:

1. Potatoes. 2. Wheat. 3. Barley or oats. 4. Lay down with seeds.

POTATOES yield per acre from 10l. to 20l. Average quantity fifty barrels, at eighteen stone each. Land manured and let to labourers for planting, at four or five guineas an acre. Wheat from seven to ten barrels of twenty stone, at 20s. a barrel; average price from 19s. to 24s. per barrel. The manures are Corke dung of the richest kind, especially in the slaughtering season; sea sand for tillage, and bank sand from the river for grass grounds. There is water-carriage to the eastward for many miles: several good quays for landing manure, particularly one at Glanmire, near Dunkettle, from which the inland inhabitants draw the manure four or five miles in one-horse carts. Lime is also much used at a shilling a barrel. The meadows in this country yield from 1 to 3 tons of hay per acre, at 40s. to 45s. per ton on an average. Dairies are let to dairymen at 4 to 5 guineas a cow. Many sheep are kept on the hills, but none folded. The diet of the poor is potatoes and milk, with some fish in the herring and sprat season. Labourers houses from 25s. to 40s. a year. Fuel, a very little coal, the rest supplied by bushes, stolen faggots, &e. as there is no turf in this part of the country. Price of labour 6d. per day through the year, on a pinch in harvest 8d. sometimes more, but within the liberties of the city generally 8d. Women 3d. and 4d. a day in reeking corn: children from a 1d. to 3d. in picking stones, &c. Most employed in country business; a few at some bolting iron and paper-mills in the neighbourhood. From fourteen acres of orchard Mr. Trent makes sixty hogsheads a year of cyder; a clear acre of good trees about seven hogsheads. His hogs he feeds on the bull potatoes, which yield great crops without dung, and for two or three years successively.

SEPTEMBER 16th, to Cove by water, from Mr. Trent's quay. The view of Lota is charming; a fine rising lawn from the water, with noble spreading woods reaching on each side; the house a very pleasing front, with lawn shooting into the woods. The river forms a creek between two hills, one Lota, the other opening to another hill of inclosures well wooded. As the boat leaves the shore nothing can be finer than the view behind us; the back woods of Lota, the house and lawn, and the high bold inclosures towards Corke, form the finest shore imaginable, leading to Corke the city appearing in full view, Dunkettle wooded inclosures, a fine sweep of hill, joining Mr. Hoare's, at Factory-hill, whose woods have a beautiful effect. Dunkettle house almost lost in a wood. AS we advance, the woods of Lota and Dunkettle unite in one fine mass. The sheet of water, the rising lawns, the house in the most beautiful situation imaginable, with more woods above it than lawn below it. The west shore of Loch Mahon, a very fine rising hill cut into inclosures, landlocked on every side with high lands, scattered with inclosures, woods, seats, &c. with every chearful circumstance of lively commerce, has altogether a great effect. Advancing to Passage, the shores are various, and the scenery enlivened by fourscore sail of large ships; the little port of Passage at the water's edge, with the hills rising boldly above it. The channel narrows between the great island and the hills of Passage. The shores high, the ships scattered about, with the inclosures hanging behind the masts and yards, are picturesque. Passing the streight, a new bason of the harbour opens, surrounded with high lands. Monk's-town-castle on the hill to the right, and the grounds of Ballybricken, a beautiful intermixed scene of wood and lawn. The high more of the harbour's mouth opens gradually; the whole scene landlocked. The first view of Hawl-bowling-island and Spike-island, high rocky lands, with the channel opening to Cove, where are a fleet of ships at anchor, and Rostellan, Lord Inchiquin's house, backed with hills, a scenery that wants nothing but the accompanyment of wood. The view of Ballybricken changes; it now appears to be unfortunately cut into right lines. Arrived at the ship at Cove; in the evening returned, leaving Mr. Jefferys and family on board for a voyage to Havre, in their way to Paris.

DUNKETTLE is one of the most beautiful places I have seen in Ireland. It is a hill of some hundred acres broken into a great variety of ground, by gentle declivities, with every where an undulating outline, and the whole varied by a considerable quantity of wood, which in some places is thick enough to take the appearance of close groves, in others spreads into scattered thickets and a variety of single groups. This hill, or rather cluster of hills, is surrounded on one side by a reach of Corke harbour, over which it looks in the most advantageous manner; and on the other by an irriguous vale, through which flows the river Glanmire: the opposite shore of that river has every variety that can unite to form pleasing landscapes for the views from Dunkettle grounds; in some places narrow glens, the bottoms of which are quite filled with water, and the steep banks covered with thick woods that spread a deep shade; in others the vale opens to form the scite of a pretty chearful village, overhung by hill and wood: here the shore rises gradually into large inclosures, which spread over the hills, stretching beyond each other; and there the vale melts again into a milder variety of fields. A hill thus situated, and consisting in itself of so much variety of surface, must necessarily command many pleasing views; to enjoy these to the better advantage, Mr. Trent (than whom no one has a better taste both to discover and describe the beauties of natural scenes) is making a walk around the whole, which is to bend to the inequalities of the ground, so as to take the principal points in view. The whole is so beautiful, that if I was to make the regular detour, the description might be too minute: but there are some points which gave me so much pleasure, that I know not how to avoid recommending to others that travel this way to taste the same satisfaction: from the upper side of the orchard you look down a part of the river, where it epens into a regular bason, one corner stretching up to Corke, lost behind the hill of Lota, the lawn of which swells among the woods; the house obscured, and therefore seeming a part of your home scene; the losing the river behind the beautiful projection of Lota, is more pleasing than can be expressed. The other reach, leading to the harbour's mouth, is half hidden by the trees which margin the foot of the hill on which you stand: in front a noble range of cultivated hills, the inclosures broken by slight spots of wood, and prettily varied with houses, without being so crowded as to take off the rural effect. The scene is not only beautiful in those common circumstances which form a landscape, but is alive with the chearfulness of ships and boats perpetually moving. Upon the whole, it is one of the most luxuriant prospects I have any where seen. Leaving the orchard pass on the brow of a hill, which forms the bank of the river Glanmire, commanding the opposite woods of Lota in all their beauty. Rise to the top of the high hill which joins the deer-park, and exhibits a scene equally extensive and beautiful; you look down on a vale which winds almost around at your feet, finishing to the left in Corke river, which here takes the appearance of a lake, bounded by wood and hills, and sunk in the bottom of a vale, in a style which painting cannot imitate; the opposite hills of Lota wood and lawn, seem formed as objects for this point of view: at your feet a hill rises out of the vale, with higher ones around it, the margins scattered wood; to the right, toward Riverstown, a vale; the whole backed by cultivated hills to Kallahan's field. Milder scenes follow; a bird's-eye view of a small vale sunk at your feet, through which the river flows; a bridge of several arches unites two parts of a beautiful village, the meadow grounds of which rise gently, a varied surface of wood and lawn, to the hills of Riverstown, the whole surrounded by delicious sweeps of cultivated hills. To the left, a wooded glen rising from the vale to the horizon, the scenery sequestered, but pleasing; the oak wood which hangs on the deer-park hill, an addition. Down to the brow of the hill, where it hangs over the river, a picturesque interesting spot. The inclosures on the opposite bank hang beautifully to the eye, and the wooded glen winds up the hill. Returning to the house I was conducted to the hill, where the grounds slope off to the river of Corke, which opens to view in noble reaches of a magnitude that fills the eye and the imagination: a whole country of a character truly magnificent, and behind the winding vale which leads between a series of hills, to Glanmire.

PICTURES AT DUNKETTLE.

A St. Michael, &c. the subject confused, by Michael Angelo. A St. Francis on wood, a large original of Guido. A St. Cecilia, original of Romanelli. An assumption of the virgin, by L. Carracci; A quaker's meeting, of above 50 figures, by Egbert Hemskerk. A sea view and rock piece, by Vernet; A small flagellation, by Sebastian del Piombo. A madonna and child, small, by Rubens. The crucifixion, many figures in miniature, excellent, though the master is unknown. An excellent copy of the famous Danae of Titian, at Monte Cavallo, near Naples, by Cioffi of Naples. Another of the Venus of Titian, at the tribuna in Florence. Another of Venus blinding Cupid, by Titian, at the Palazzo Borghese in Rome. Another of great merit of the madonna Delia Sedia of Raphael, at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, by Stirn, a German, lately at Rome. Another of an holy family, from Raphael, of which there are said to be three originals, one at the king's palace in Naples, one in the palais royal in Paris, and the third in the collection of Lord Exeter, lately purchased at Rome. A portrait of Sir Patrick Trent, by Sir P. Lely. An excellent portrait of a person unknown, by Dahl.

SEPTEMBER 17th, to Castlemartyr, the seat of the Earl of Shannon, one of the most distinguished improvers in Ireland, in whom I found the most earnest desire to give me every species of information, with a knowledge and ability which enabled him to do it most effectually. Passed through Middleton, a well built place, which belongs to the noble Lord to whom it gives title. Castlemartyr is an old house, but much added to by the present Earl; he has built, besides other rooms, a dining one 32 feet long by 22 broad, and a drawing one, the best rooms I have seen in Ireland, a double cube of 25 feet, being 50 long, 25 broad, and 25 high. The grounds about the house are very well laid, out; much wood well grown, considerable lawns, a river made to wind through them in a beautiful manner, an old castle so perfectly covered with ivy as to be a picturesque object. A winding walk leads for a considerable distance along the banks of this river, and presents several pleasing landscapes. But let me hasten to objects of more importance: Lord Shannon's husbandry consists of many circumstances. I shall begin with

TURNIPS,

WHICH Lord Shannon has cultivated upon a very large scale, as will appear from the following particulars. His father began the culture many years ago, which he continued till 1770, and then went largely into it. He had every year, from 1770 to 1774, both inclusive, 16 acres, and in 1775, 24. Has cultivated them in both broad cast and the drill method, the rows at three feet; but finding that the roots became too large, altered his method to 18 inches, in order to have more of them; the size will be seen by the following account.

"Castlemartyr; Dec. 21st , 1771.

I THIS day measured a square perch of turnips, 16 feet, drilled in rows three feet apart; there were 84 turnips on this perch, they weighed 7cwt. 2qrs. which I compute to be 60 tons to the English acre; and there were vacant spaces in the rows within this perch where the turnips had failed, that would have held at least 10 large turnips more. I then pulled 84 turnips, the largest I could see, within about 15 yards of the above perch, and they weighed 15cwt. 15qrs. 17lb. which is about 125 ton, 29 cwt. 20 lb; I weighed two of the above turnips separately, one of them a white tankard, they each weighed 32lb. The white Norfolk was three feet eight inches in circumference. N. B. I neither manured nor burned the ground; it was naturally good; I tilled it well, and hoed the crop carefully.

SHANNON."

ONE of the above turnips Lord Shannon took with him to the Dublin Society, where it was seen by the whole city; but from my tour through the kingdom, I am afraid it did not animate so many as it ought. These large turnips were not raised in any peculiar spot, but were part of a field of eight or ten acres. The application of the crop has been generally by drawing and giving them to sheep on dry pastures; all sorts, but particularly fat ewes, they fattened admirably. Finds that the great benefit of the culture is having them near a very dry field, in order to manage them as abovementioned. He has found that they will do exceedingly well without manuring, especially if the land is an old rough pasture, or which wants to be broken up; fallowed well and thoroughly ploughed, produces great crops. Sea weed his Lordship has tried for them, spread about the thickness of dung, and it gave prodigious products. Upon the whole, he is clearly of opinion, that nothing can be more beneficial to the agriculture of Ireland than introducing this culture, and so well convinced of this, that he has always shewn his crops to farmers, weighed them before them, shewed the cattle fed, and took every pains to make them come into the culture, but in vain. As a preparation of corn they are incomparable; he has had very great crops of barley after them, such as were laid with every heavy rain from luxuriance. Wheat he has also sown after them, and got eight barrels an acre from seven stone of seed.

CABBAGES

LORD SHANNON cultivated also; generally has had five or six acres for four or five years; the sort the flat Dutch, and got very fine crops. Gave them to cattle of all sorts, who eat them very greedily, and did better upon them than upon turnips, but would not last longer than christmas, otherwise would have preferred them. The crops of corn after them neither better nor worse than after turnips. Tried also the Scotch and other sorts, but preferred the flat Dutch to any other. One great objection to both cabbages and turnips is the mildness of the season in Ireland, which is so great as to burst the cabbages, and make the turnips run to seed before their time. As to the grass springing so fast in winter, as to prevent the necessity of the culture, he does not find it. Cabbages must be well manured for.

POTATOES.

LORD SHANNON planted 18 acres of potatoes with the plough, manuring only the furrows; horse and hand hoed them perfectly, to keep them free from weeds; did it twice, and purposed oftener, but the growth of the crop was so luxuriant, that neither the horse nor hoe could get through them. Took them up with the plough, and the crop proved exceedingly good, far better than they would have been in the common method.

DRILL HUSBANDRY.

LORD SHANNON'S expression of this mode to me was excellent, / read myself into it, and worked myself out of it. He tried it with wheat, horse and hand hoeing it perfectly, and got a very fine crop; an unexceptionable one for the mode, but the produce was not equal to the common way, while the expence, trouble, and attention, were endless, so that he was convinced, even by his success, that it could not be a beneficial mode of culture. For turnips also he prefers very much the broad-cast mode, and never began the drill method but as an ease of hoeing.

SOILING.

SOILING horses, &c. in summer, with grass mown every day, Lord Shannon has practised greatly, and finds it highly beneficial, and particularly for raising great quantities of dung.

SEA-SAND AND LIME.

THE manures which Lord Shannon uses are sea-sand and lime. He prefers the latter for brown flaty stone land, and sand for lime-stone land: has used great quantities of it, though four to six miles from the sea. In one month he has brought 6719 barrels of it, at 5d. a barrel, or 139l. 19s. 9d. for 67 acres, at 100 barrels an acre, and afterwards 50 more for a second dressing: the effect of it is very great, particularly in bringing daisies (bellis) on very poor land, and white clover when laid on good grass lands. If a bag breaks, and some accidentally falls on a waste. the man gathers it up as clean as he can, yet it is sure to bring a patch of white clover. Lime his Lordship burns in a long-necked kiln, which he finds to answer so well, that one barrel of culm burns ten of lime. He lets the kiln, and buys the lime at 1s. 4d. a barrel. Draws 26 barrels a day. The culm 4s. a barrel. The labourers hire 1d. a barrel for quarrying, breaking, and burning.

BOUNTIES.

LORD SHANNON'S bounties to labourers amount to 50l. a year. He gives them by way of encouragement; but only to such as can speak English, and do something more than fill a cart.

DITCHES.

HIS Lordship has made some double ditches of an extraordinary dimension; the center of them a parapet terrass, 13 feet 6 inches broad, with a hedge on each side of it, and with a riding between them: they are most completely done, and answer the double purpose perfectly.

LINEN MANUFACTORY.

LORD SHANNON established a factory at Cloghnikelty, in the year 1769, a bleach yard of 17 acres of land, with mills, &c. for bleaching the pieces that are wove in the neighbourhood. There are 94 looms at work in the town, 100l. a week laid out in yarn, and at three fairs 1800l. the amount of which is 7000l. a yeax; the cloth chiefly coarse: and this establishment has had great effect in increasing the manufactures in the neighbourhood.

COMPOSTS.

HE is exceedingly attentive in forming composts. A river runs through Castlemartyr, part of which is often full of sand and mud; this he empties periodically and mixes it with lime. In one field I saw larger compost heaps of these materials, than I remember any where else to have observed; one of these was 105 yards long, nine broad, and four feet high, containing cubical yards 1260
Another, 78 and 8 broad, and 4 feet high 832
Another, 155 by 5, and 4 feet high 1033
Another, 76 by 5, and 4 feet high 506
Total 3631

Among these hills were 2000 barrels, or 8000 buslhels of lime mixed: after this it is needless to say, that he manures his land with uncommon spirit.

WASTE LAND.

His Lordship has reclaimed 109 acres of furze land, which he has eradicated, and brought to a very profitable soil.

WALLING.

LORD SHANNON has inclosed 380 acres with a most excellent wall, eight feet and a half high under the coping, and eight inches above it. The wall is two feet thick at bottom, and eighteen inches at top, and costs 4s. per perch, or 1l. 16s. running measure.

BARN.

THE best built barn I have seen in Ireland, is at Castlemartyr. The bays and threshing floor are 14 feet high, and over them are two stories for granaries, the first eight feet two inches high, and the upper one eight feet nine inches besides the roof, with a door in the center of the floors, and a wheel for winding sacks up. It is built in such a manner, the doors, &c. so plated every where at the edges with iron, that it is impossible a mouse should get in or out; or that a rat should any where gnaw his way in. Upon clearing it last year, about 20 mice were found that had been carried in in the sheafs, a little straw was laid for them in a corner, and the barn shut for a fortnight, at the end of which time, they were found alive, and killed, not one being able to escape. I have seen very fine barns built in England, on capt stones, into which no vermin could get, unless carried in, but when they were carried in, they had a million of ways to get out.

BULLOCKS DRAWN BY THE HORNS.

LORD SHANNON upon going into tillage, found that the expence of horses was so great, that it eat up all the profit of the farm; which made him determine to use bullocks; he did it in the common method of yokes and bows, but they performed so indifferently, and with such manifest uneasiness, that he imported the French method of drawing by the horns; and in order to do this effectually, he wrote to a person at Bourdeaux to hire him a man who was practiced in that method. Upon the correspondent being applied to, he represented difficulties attending it, the man who was spoken to having been in Germany for the same purpose. Upon which Lord Shannon gave directions that every thing should be bought and sent over which the labourer wished to bring with him. According, a bullock of the best sort, that had been worked three years, was purchased; also a hay-cart, a plough, harrows, and all the tackle for harnessing them by the horns, which, with the man, were sent over. His salary was to be 400 livres a year, with board, &c. The bullock, 218 livres; tackle for two bullocks, 36. Two carts, 314. A plough and harrow, 123, which, with other expences, came to 45l. 17s. and freight 16l. 16s. Upon the whole, the experiment cost, from first to last, to bring it thoroughly to bear, about an hundred pounds. His Lordship is persuaded, that the first year of his introducing it at large on his farm, saved him the whole. He has pursued the method ever since, and with the greatest success. He finds the bullocks so perfectly at their ease, that it is a pleasure to see them; for first breaking up lays, and for cross ploughing, he uses four, but in all succeeding earths, only two; nor more for the first ploughing of stubbles: I saw six ploughs doing this in a wheat stubble, and they did it five or six inches deep with great ease. Upon first introducing it, there was a combination among all his men against the practice, but Lord Shannon was determined to carry his point; in this matter, he followed a course that had all imaginable success: one lively sensible boy took to the oxen, and worked them readily. His Lordship at once advanced this boy to eight-pence a day: this did the business at once; others followed the example, and since that he has had numbers who could manage them, and plough as well as the Frenchman. They plough an acre a day with ease; and carry very great loads of corn, hay, coals, &c. Four bullocks in the French cart brought twelve barrels of coals, ship measure, each 5 cwt. or three tons, but the tackle of the fore couple breaking, the other two drew the load above a mile to a forge. Two of them drew 35 cwt. of flag stone, three miles with ease; but Lord Shannon does not in common work them in this manner, three tons he thinks a proper load for four bullocks. Upon the bailiff, Mr. Bere, mentioning loads drawn by these oxen, that appeared to me most extraordinarily great, I expressed many doubts, his Lordship immediately ordered the French harvest cart to be loaded half a mile from the reeks; it was done; 1020 sheafs of wheat were laid on it, and two oxen drew it without difficulty; we then weighed forty sheafs, the weight 251lb. at which rate the 1020 came to 6375 lb. or above three tons, which is a vast weight for two oxen to draw; I am very much in doubt whether in yoaks they would have stirred the cart so loaded. The use of yoaks is out of the question. The only comparison now wanting is with collars.

LORD Shannon has an excellent way of managing all his cattle in one circumstance, which is to mark them on the horn with numbers, and keeps a book engraved in columns, by which means, on turning to the number, he sees every particular of the beast, which are inserted in the columns. He trains them for work at three to four years old, gently breaking them in at once, without any difficulty.

THE common husbandry about Castle Martyr, will be seen from the following account, for which particulars I am obliged to the attention of this patriotic nobleman, who took every method to have me well informed. Farms rise from one hundred to three hundred acres, but some to one thousand, of which size Lord Middleton has one. They are not taken in partnership so much as in other parts; two or three will take a farm of thirty or forty acres, but it is not general. The soil is various; the vale, from Carricktowel to Killay, of ten or twelve miles long, and four over, is of lime-stone; the hills are brown stone; the loam upon it from three inches to eight feet deep, strong, rich and good; dry in winter, and good turnip land. These lime-stone rocks are full of cavities and subterraneous passages, so that if you cut a drain to carry water off, and touch upon a lime-stone rock, probably all will find its way. Rent of the barony of Imokilly, on an average, twelve shillings an acre; Kilnatalton, eight shillings. A third part of the county is waste land, the price of which is risen extremely in a few years; rent, one shilling; the rest of the county, eight shillings. The course of crops:

1. Potatoes, upon clay ground, dunged and ploughed at 3l. plant fix barrels at two and a half cwt. produce 50 to 100 barrels; potatoes sell 2s. tq 4s. a barrel.

2. Wheat, sow twelve stone, produce five barrels.

3. Oats, on one ploughing, sow a barrel of fourteen stone, crop eight barrels. Some poor people take one or two more crops of oats.

4. Lay out for grass from two to twelve years. They sometimes burn for potatoes, especially on the absentee estates, and get as good crops as in the other way.

Expence of an acre of potatoes.

  . s. d.
Rent 3 0 0
Seed 0 18 0
Planting and trenching, forty days, of a man 1 0 0
Taking up, and carrying home, &c. 1 0 0
Tythe 0 6 0
6 4 0
PRODUCE.  
  . s. d.  
Seventy barrels, at 3s. 10 10 0  
Expences 6 4 0  
Profit 4 6 0  

A dispute arising upon the produce of potatoes, Lord Shannon ordered some spades square (each 5 feet) to be taken up, and weighed them; the weight, on an average, 19lb. per spade, or 108 barrels per acre, each 252lb. that is, 12 weights to the barrel, each 21 lb. These were his own potatoes, and not an extraordinary crop. Barley is sometimes put in instead of oats, and bere instead of wheat. A crop of bere produces 10 barrels; barley yields 8. No turnips or rape. A few of the better farmers sow clover, but the number very inconsiderable. Flax is sown by few of the common people in patches. Paring and burning called grassing, and burning is practised by the common farmers, upon such estates as their landlords will permit. They manure with sea-sand for corn, and sea-weed for potatoes; they will carry them three miles from the sea: all make composts of sand and earth. Dairies are numerous, from twenty to fifty cows set at 3l. a cow. The dairyman has his privilege, which is an acre of land for every ten cows, a good house and dairy; a collop for every 10 cows, and will keep 8 or 10 pigs. If not paid in money, it is one cwt. of butter and 12s. in money. A cow that gives two gallons a day the dairyman cannot reject: it will take three acres to a cow, but privilege and all four acres. Very few flocks in this country; Mr. Robert Fitzgerald has 1000 to 1500: but the number too few to be worth mentioning. The poor people all keep a collop or two of sheep, with which they cloath themselves. They plough generally with four horses, sow with two, and use ploughs of so bad a construction, that a man attends them with a strong stick leaning on the beam to keep the share in the ground.

LAND sells at twenty-five years purchase. Rents have not fallen; for very little of it is let at more than its value. Tythes are every where valued by the proctor by the acre. No emigrations from the county of Corke. The religion is almost universally catholic. Building a common cabbin 5l. two of stone, &c. for 31l. 10s. They carry half a barrel of sea-sand on horseback, fourteen miles from Corke to the mountains of Barrymore, and to Mr. Coppinger's, twenty-four miles, and it improves much for tillage: but it is carried, when not to mountains, in cars; yet is not found to be so good as lime.

THERE is a woollen trade at Castle Martyr: Mr. James Pratt, in particular, buys wool in Tipperary and at Ballynasloe. The best is the Connaught; it is the finest, and is short; the longest is in the county of Carlow and Tipperary. In Carlow they keep the sheep fattening a year longer, after buying in Tipperary. Tipperary wool 5lb. Carlow 6lb. Connaught 4s lb. per fleece. In sorting, the fine belly wool is separated, the finer will make cloth of 10S. or 12s. a yard. The back and sides are laid by for combing, the other is carded; about four-fifths of the fleece is combed. Combs in his own house, employing 16 to 20 hands; pays them by the ball, 3d. each of 24 oz. and they earn 8s. a week; these balls are given out to the poor people to spin, employing above a thousand spinners. They spin a ball from 11 to 13 skain in four days, attending their family besides. The value is 2s. 8d. per ball: are paid 9d. a ball. In this way of doing it there are not many tricks, being in general very honest. For 11 skains, 8d.—12—9d.—13—10d.—1 4—11d. They are sorted and packed in packs of 180 balls, which sell at 30l. a pack. It was never known to be higher than last year; twenty years ago it was 25l. a pack. About a fourth of what is spun in this part of the kingdom, is worked up at home. The trade has been a rising one for two years.

EDWARD ROCHE, Esq; of Kildining, gave me, at Castle Martyr, the following account of some improvements he has made. He has done 250 acres of mountain, and began upon 50 of bog; the former with paring and burning with ploughs, at 7s. and cutting and burning, 5s. 6d. in june and july. Limes with the ashes, 50 barrels per acre, at 5d. Spreads the ashes, and ploughs in april or may; then lets to poor people, at 30s. an acre. They trench in potatoes in the common way, and get on an average sixty barrels; then trench in rye or black oats, by six men to an acre; the crops six barrels of rye, 20 stone per barrel, at 7s. or 8s. and black oats, 10 kilderkins, at 11 stone; then white oats, 8 barrels, and sows grass seeds one barrel, 8 lb. white clover, and 2 lb. rib-grass. The land before not 6d. an acre, could let it now at 7s. Ploughs at first with six bullocks, afterwards with four. Potatoe-stalks he carries to his pound, but in general they are left in heaps in the field, and are a nuifance in ploughing.

FROM Castle Martyr, september 20, to Castle Mary, the seat of —— Longfield, Esq; who keeps a great quantity of land in his hands. Has cultivated the potatoes called bulls, that is, the English cluster , for cattle, but nobody will eat them; he has from six to eleven acres yearly: plants them in the common manner, and gets 120 barrels an acre, of 20 stone each. I saw a spade of five feet and a half square, dug the produce 23 lb. on very poor land. On sand and sea-weed the same space of London ladle's, weighed 27 lb. Manures for them with sea-sand and weed, but not with dung; gives them to his horses and bullocks: and when he gives his horses potatoes, they have no oats. It is surprizing to see how fond horses are of them; they do very well on them raw, but the best way is to boil them, as they will then fatten the horses. The bullocks are equally fond of them, and will follow him to eat them out of his hand. Sheep are the same, getting into the fields to scrape them up: upon the whole, Mr. Longfield is persuaded that no root or crop in the world is more beneficial to a farmer than this potatoe, so that he should have continued in turnips, which he has cultivated largely, but has found this root so perfectly useful, that he has experienced the absolute dependence which may be placed on them for winter provision of all sorts. And what is of infinite consequence, the culture maybe extended to what quantity you please, without the assistance of dung, without which other potatoes cannot be had.

MR. Longfield established the linen manufacture here three years ago, by building a bleach mill and bleach green; he has 14 looms constantly at work upon his own account, who are paid for what they manufacture by the yard. The sort generally made is from 900 to 1400, and makes 650 pieces of 25 yards length, annually; sells, at present, from 23s. to 30s. a piece. The factory employs 50 hands; bleaches great quantities for the poor people. A great many weavers are scattered about the country, who bring their webs, &c. to be bleached here. The flax is raised, and the yarn spun at Cloghnikelty, Ross, &c. in the west of the county. No woollen manufacture is carried on in this country. Mr. Longfield has always ploughed with oxen, which he has found far more advantageous than horses. Clover he has cultivated long with very great success, and finds it highly beneficial. The county of Corke two-thirds waste, at a very low or no rate, the other third at 15s.

Arthur Young, A Tour in Ireland, made in the years 1776, 1777, and 1778 (London: T. Cadell, 1780)

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