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William Camden

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Romans in Britaine (2)

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60. Under the raigne of Nerva, the writers have discontinued the Storie of Britannie. But in the time of Trajane, the Britans may seem to have revolted and rebelled, and evident it is out of Spartianus, that subdued they were. Moreover, while Adrian was Emperour Julius Severus ruled the Island: and when he was called away against the Jewes, who then were in an uprore, the Britans could not have been kept in their allegeance to the Romanes, had not Adrianus come among them in person: who being then Consull the third time, in the yeere of Christ 124, seemeth by the prowess of his armie to have discomfited his enemies. For I have seene in one peece of money of his coining the stampe of an Emperour with three souldiers, whom I judge to represent three Legions, with this Inscription, EXER. BRITANNICVS, and another bearing this inscription, RESTITVTOR BRITANNIAE. This Prince reformed many things thorowout the Island, and was the first that built a wall between the barbarous Britans and the Romans fourescore miles in length, laying the foundation therof within the ground of huge piles or stakes, and fastning them together in manner of a strong hedge or mound. For which expedition of his, Florus the Poet plaied upon him thus:

I will in no wise Caesar be,
To walke along in Britanie,
The Scythicke frosts to feele and see

Unto whom, Adrianus wrote backe in this wise:

And I will never Florus be,
To walke from shop to shop, as he;
To lurke in Tavernes secretly,
And there to feele the Rome wine-fly.

At this time M. F. CL. Priscus Licinus was the Propraetor of Britannie, and emploied in the Journey of Jurie with Hadrian, as appeareth by this antique inscription in a broken Marble:





Under Antoninus Pius (by whose ordinance as many as were in the Roman world became Citizens of Rome) this warre brake out againe into a light fire, which he so quenched by driving the barbarous Britans further off, under the conduct of Lollius Urbicus Lieutenant, and by making another wall of turfe, that thereupon he was surnamed Britannicus; and he deserved singular commendation, for that he had fined the Brigantes with the losse of one part of their Lands, who had infested with roades Gerounia, a neighbour Province, under the protection and allegeance of the Romans. And at this time, as we collect out of Jabolenus, Seius Saturnius was archigubernus of the Navie in Britanie. But whether by this title, hee were an Admirall of the said Navie, or a principall Pilot, or the Master of a ship, I would have the Lawyers to tell.

61. But the Britans, giving occasion still of quarrels and warres, one after another began a commotion under Antoninus, for the appeasing whereof Calphurnius Agricola was sent, and seemeth to have ended the same with fortunate successe. Which commendation for the dispatching of this warre, Fronto, for Romane eloquence comparable to the best, and second to none, would needes give unto Antoninus the Emperor. For albeit he, sitting still and holding his Court in the verie pallace of Rome, gave out onely his commission and warrant for to make this ware, yet he protesteth, that like unto the Pilot sitting at the helme to stere a galley, he deserved the glory of the whole course and sailing in that voyage. At the same time there served also in the armies of Britannie Helvetius Pertinax, brought hither out of the Parthian warre, and here stayed.

62. Whiles Commodus was Emperour, Britanie was all of a Garboile, full of warres and seditious troubles. For the barbarous Britans, having passed over the wall, made great waste, and hewed in peeces the Romanes, both Captaine and Souldier. For the repressing of which rebels Ulpius Marcellus was sent: who had so fortunate a hand in taming their audacious stomacks, that his prowesse was soone defaced and depraved with envie, and himselfe called backe. This Captaine was of all others most vigilant; and being desirous that the rest about him might be as watchfull, he wrote every evening xii tables throughout, such as are commonly made of the Linden-tree wood, and commaunded one of his attendants about him, to carry the same unto divers of the souldiers, some at one houre of the night, and some at another, whereby they might thinke their generall was ever awake, and so themselves might sleepe the lesse. Of whose temperance thus much also is reported: And albeit otherwise his nature was able to resist sleepe, yet that he might do it the better, he brought to passe by fasting and abstinence. For to the end that he would not feed of bread to the full, he caused it to be brought from Rome to him into the campe; that by the reason of the staleness of it, he could not eat any whit more than was needfull. But when he, I say, was called back, all licentious wantonnesse brake into the Campe, and the forces in Britanny, letting the raines loose of military discipline, became unruly, and refused the command and government of Commodus, although by some of his flatterers he was stiled Britannicus. Moreover, they that served in Britanny suborned and sent a thousand and five hundred of their own rank into Italy against Perennius, a man that not only caried an outward shew and countenance, but all of the Emperors minions could indeed do most with him, accusing him that he had made captaines over souldiers certain of the gentlemens degree, and put Senators out of place, and withall that he had laid wait to take away the Emperors life. Commodus gave eare to this information and beleeved it, whereupon he delivered the man into their hands: who after he had with many indignities been whipped, lost his head, and was proclaimed a traitor to his country. Howbeit these seditious slurs Helvius Pertinax repressed, not without great danger, being himselfe almost slaine, and for certain left for dead among those that were slaine.

63. Now when Britanny was in peaceable estate, Clodius Albinus received it from Commodus, and withall afterwards for his worthy exploits in Britanny the name of Caesareus: but soone after, because in a publique assembly he had made an invective against the government of the Emperors, Junius Severus was placed in his roume.

64. At which very time, the thick mists of superstition being skattered (not under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Emperors, as Beda writeth, but under Commodus, when Eleutherus was Bishop of Rome), the heavenly light and brightnesse of Christianity, by the meanes of King Lucius shone upon this Iland. Which Prince (as we find in the ancient reports and lives of Martyrs usually read in the Church), admiring the integritie and holy life of the Christians, made petition unto Eleutherus the Pope, by the mediation of Elvan and Meduan two Britans, that both himselfe and his subject might be instructed in Christian religion. Then sent he hither forthwith Fugatius and Donatianus, two holy men, with letters which at this day be extant, and (as very many are perswaded) are not forged but authenticall, as bearing date, when L. Aurelius Commodus was second time Consull with Vespronius. Which holy men instructed the King and others in the mysteries of Christian religion. Hereupon it is that Ninnius writeth thus of this King. King Lucius, quoth he, is surnamed Lever Maur, that is, a Prince of great glory, for the Faith which in his time came. Now for those that call these matters of King Lucius into question (as many doe in these daies), as if there had been at that time no King in Britanny, which they suppose was full and whole reduced into a province before, I wish them to call to remembrance this much, that the Romanes by ancient custome had in their Provinces Kings as the instruments of bondage; that the Britans even then refused to obey Commodus; and that themselves possessed and held freely those parts of the Iland which were beyond the foresaid wall, had there Kings of their own, and that Antoninus Pius a few yeeres before, having ended war, permitted Kingdomes to be ruled by their own Kings and provinces by their own Comites. What should let [be an obstacle] then, but that Lucius might be King over that part of the Iland unto which the Romanes forces never came? And verily, that which Tertullian hath put down, may very aptly be referred to the Britans conversion unto Christ: those places, quoth he, among the Britans which yeelded the Romanes no accesse, are now subdued unto Christ. And somewhat after, Britanny is enclosed within the compasse of the Ocean. The nation of the Mauri, and the barbarous Getulians are beset by the Romanes, for feare they might passe beyond the limits of their countries. What should I speake of the Romanes, who with garizons of their Legions fortifie their empire? Neither are the able to extend the poure of their domination beyond those very nations. But the kingdome and name of Christ reacheth father still, it is beleeved in every place, and is worshipped of all those people above named, &.

65. But our Ecclesiasticall writers who have emploied both time and diligence in the consideration of this point endevor and labour to prove, and that out of ancient authors of credit, that this before this time, in the very dawning and infancies of the Church, Britanny had received the Christian religion: and namely that Joseph of Arimathea a noble Senator, sailed out of Gaule into Britanny, and that Claudia Rufina the wife of Aulus Pudens, which woman, as is credibly thought, S. Paul nameth in his later epistle to Timothy, and whom the Poet Martiall so highly commendeth, was a Britan borne. They cite also the testimony of Dorotheus, who commonly goeth under the name of the Bishop of Tyre, who in his Synopsis hath recorded, that Simon Zelotes, after he had travelled through Mauritania, was at last slaine and buried in Britanny: as also that Aristobulus, whom S. Paul mentioneth in his Epistle to the Romanes, was made Bishop of Britanny (whereto Nicephorus inclineth), notwithstanding he speaketh of Britania and not Britannia. They report likewise upon the authority of Simeon that great Metaphrast, and of the Greeks Menology , that S. Peter came hither and spred abroad the light of Gods word: out of Sophronius also and Theodoret, that S. Paul after his second imprisonment in Rome, visited this our country. Whereupon Venantius Fortunatus, if he may be beleeved as a Poet, writeth thus of him, unlesse he speaketh of his doctrine:

Pass' d over Seas, where any Ile makes either port or bay,
And lands, so far as Britans coast or cape of Thule lay.

But to this purpose maketh especially that which erewhile I alleged out of Tertullian, as also that which Origen recordeth how the Britans with one consent embraced the Faith, and made way themselves unto God by meanes of the Druidae, who alwaies did beat upon this article of beleefe, that there was but one God. And verily of great moment and importance is that with me, that Gildas, after he had mentioned the rebellion of Boodicia and treated of the revenge thereof, Meane while, quoth he, Christ, that true Sun, shining with his most glittering brightnesse upon the universall world, not from the temporall skie and firmament, but even from the highest cope of heaven, exceeding all times, vouchsaved first His beames, that is to say His precepts and doctrine in the time, as we know, of Tiberius Caesar, unto this frozen Iland full of Ice, and lying out as it were in a long tract of earth remote from the visible sunne. Chrysostome likewise (to note so much by the way) writeth of the Christian religion in this Iland as followeth, The British Islands seated without this sea, and within the very Ocean, have felt the poure of the Word (for even there also be Churches founded and altars erected), of that Word, I say, which is planted in the soules, and now also in the lips of all people. And the same Chrysostome in another place, How often have folk in Britanny fed of mans flesh? But now with fasting they refresh the soule. Likewise S. Hierome, The Britan divided from our world, if he proceed in religion, leaving the western parts toward the Suns setting, will seek Hierusalem, a City known unto him by fame only, and relation of scriptures. But now passe we forward from the Church to the Empire.

66. When Commodus was slaine, Pertinax, being called to the Empire, sent presently Albinus again over into Britanny. But after that Pertinax within eight hundred and two daies was made away, Didius Julianus (who likewise was within a while killed) at Rome, Pescennius Niger in Syria, Clodius Albinus in Britanny, and Septimus Severus in Pannonia all together at once take upon them the soverainty of the Empire. Severus, being next unto Rome, hastneth first to Rome, and, with consent of the souldiers and Senate proclaimed Emperor, straightwaies (Because he would not leave an enemy behind at his back) craftily created Albinus Caesar. This Albinus, chiefe commander of the forces in Britanny and Gaule, and having stamped mony with his image upon it, set up his statues, and conferred upon him the honorable dignity of a Consull, wisely with good foresight dulceth [sweetens] and kindly intreateth the man. Then maketh he an expedition into the East against Niger, whom in a plaine field hee gave battell unto, vanquished and slew. The City Bizantium after 3 yeeres siege he forced and woon: the Adiabenes, Arabians and other nations hee brought to his subjection. Being now puffed up with pride for these fortunate victories, and impatient of a companion in government, he sent under-hand murderers of purpose to dispatch Albinus; but seeing his secret practises tooke not effect, hee openly proclaimeth him Traitor and an enemie to the State, and with all the speed he could make, hasteneth into Gaule against him: where Albinus with the choice and chiefe strength of the British armie made head neere unto Lyons. The Albinians fought most valiantly, in so much as Severus himselfe, throwing from him his purple robe, began with his men to flie. But when the said British forces, as if now the victorie had been in their hands, displaied their rankes in thinner arraies, and ran furiously upon their enemies backs, discomfited and in rout, Laetus, one of Severus his Captaines, who with his fresh and unsoiled troupes waited until then for to see the issue of the battell (having heard withall that Severus was slain), with a purpose and resolution now to take the Empire upon him, charged upon them and put them to flight. And Severus, having by this time rallied his men and resumed the purple Robe aforesaid, followed likewise fiercely upon them, and having slain Albinus with a number of other, obtained a most fortunate victorie. Upon this, Severus (having alone the Soveraigntie of the whole world) sent first Heraclianus to seize upon Britaine, and to rule it; then Virius Lupus, as Propraetor and Lieutenant (whom Ulpian the Civill Lawyer nameth Praesident of Britaine) who, as we shall relate in place convenient, built many new Castles there. Howbeit, driven he was in the end to redeeme his own peace at the hands of the Maeatae with a great summe of money, after hee had recovered some few prisoners, considering that the Caledonians kept not their word, who had promised to keepe under the said Maeatae. And being not able, after many losses and calamities sustained, to represse the sudden rodes and assaults made by the enemies, of necessitie he sent for Severus himselfe: who gladly and thankefully taking of this good occasion to withdraw and weane his sonnes (given to licentious rioting) from the delightsome pleasures of Rome-Citie, and therewith to augment his owne stile with the addition of Britannicus, albeit he was above threescore yeeres of age, and gowtie besides, fully resolveth with his two sons Basianus (whom he had named Antoninus and Augustus), Geta Caesar, and the Legions, to enter Britaine. The Britans forthwith sent Embassadours unto him for peace. Whom after he had of purpose detained with him a good while, till he might prepare all things meet for warre, he sent away as they came without obtaining their suit, and leaving his sonne Geta (whom hee created Augustus at his first arrivall in Britaine) in the hither part of the Province which continued in obedience to the Romanes, for the civill jurisdiction and administration of the affaires there, himself with Antoninus went into the further parts, where being occupied in cutting downe woods, making bridges, and drying up the meres, he fought no battell; howbeit, what with the ambuscadoes of enemies, and what with sicknesse, he lost fiftie thousand of his men. Thus writeth Dio. But Herodian hath recorded, that in certaine light skirmishes, whiles the barbarous Britans kept the fennie bogs and most thick woods, out of which they might more safely assaile the Romans, he had the upper-hand. Yet he enforced them in the end to a league, with this condition, that they should yeeld unto him a good part of their Countrey. And that which is the greatest honour and ornament of his Empire, he fenced it with a wall overthwart the Island, from one coast of the Ocean to another. for these victories he stamped certaine peeces of money with this inscription, VICTORIA BRITANNICA, assumed the surname of Britannicus Maximus, and his sonne Geta named Britannicus bare it, as appeareth by his coines. Howbeit, the Britans afterward (having broken covenent) began to rebell, and make alteration in the state, whereupon his wrathfull indignation against them brake out into such termes, as that in an assembly of his souldiers he gave them in charge to make a generall massacre of them all, using these verses out of Homer, to this effect:

Let none escape your bloudy hands, but be they sure to die,
Spare not the verie babes unborne, in mothers wombe that lie

These rebels when he had in some sort repressed with the helpe of his own forces. he sickned, not so much upon any bodily disease as for griefe and sorrow of mind, occasioned by the desperate and unreclaimable misdemeanour of his Sonne Antoninus, who once or twice gave the attempt to kill him with his owne hand; and so he yeelded up his vitall breath at Yorke, uttering at the point of death these his last words, A troubled state of Comon weale I found in every place, but I leave it now in peace and quietnesse, even among the Britans. His body here was in militarie sort carried forth by his souldiers, bestowed in a funerall fire, and honoured with a solemne justing, and running at Tilt, performed by his owne souldiers and sonnes. I might peradventure be censured for my vanitie, if I should relate in this place the prodigies that went before his death, and namely as touching the sootie and black hostes or Sacrifices, as also the coronet made of the deadly and mournefull cypress, which a scurrile Buffon and jester presented unto him with these words, Thou hast been all, now bee a God. But after what maner he was canonized a God, I will not thinke much of mine owne paine to annex hereunto, considering that the knowledge thereof may delight the reader also.

67. A Custome the Romanes have, to consecrate those Emperours that die, their Sonnes or Successours surviving And whosoever are in this wise honoured, be canonized and registered in the Roll of their divi, that is, Gods. Now, during this complement, they hold a generall mourning thorow the whole citie, and the same mixed with a festivall solemnitie. For after the Princes death, they burie the bodie honourably, and with sumptuous funerals, according to the maner of other men. But withall, they frame an image of waxe resembling in all points the party deceased, and lay the same openly at the entry of the palace, upon a most ample and stately bed of Ivorie, erected on high, and covered with a cloth of gold. And verily, that image lieth with a palish and wan colour like unto a sicke man. About the bed on both sides there sit a great part of the day the whole bodie of the Senate on the right hand, arraied in their blacks; and on the left hand certaine Dames and Ladies, who are by the place and dignitie of the husbands or parents worshipfull. And there is not one of them seene to weare any gold about them, nor to be adorned with jewels, but clad in white and slender garments, they represent mourners. This do they for seven daies together, during which time the Physitians resort daily unto him to touch his pulse, and consider of his disease, and thereupon as of their patient, judicially pronounce that he groweth worse and worse. This after a sevenight, when it seemed that hee was departed, certaine of the noblest and most choice yong gentlemen, as wel of the Senators as knights degree, take up the foresaid bed upon ther shoulders, and carrie it thorow the high street called Sacra into the old Forum, where the Roman Magistrats had wont to lay down their rule and government. Here on both sides were certain freeses or steps in maner of staires raised, upon which, on the one hand was placed a quire of boies of noblest birth, and of the Patritian degree, and on the other, a company of women likewise of noble parentage, singing in commendation of the dead Prince hymnes and sonets, entuned in a solemne and mournfull note. Which done, they take up the said bed or hearse againe, and carrie it out of the Citie into Campus Martius, where, in the broadest place of the said field, a frame or turret foure square with equal sides was raised, and the same made in maner of a tabernacle, of no other matter than main great peeces of timber. And verily within it was all over filled with dry fewell; but without, adorned with rich hangings woven with gold wire between, with divers ivory portraicts of imagery, and sundry curious pictures. Over this frame there stoode another somewhat lesse: howbeit, in forme and furniture verie like unto the former, with windowes and dores standing open. And for a third and fourth turret, smaller every one that next beneath it, and others likewise still one after another, untill you come to the last and utmost, which is the least and highest of all the rest. The maner of this whole building a man may well compare to these lanterns or light-towers standing by haven sides, and are commonly called Phari, which give light by fire in the night time, and direct ships at sea in their course to safe harboroughs. The hearse then being mounted up into the second tabernacle, they get together spices and odours of all sorts, likewise all the sweet smelling fruits, herbes, juices and liquors that the whole world can yeeld, and thereon powre the same forth heap-meale. For there is not a nation, city or state, nor any person of worthy and marke above the rest, but strive avie [competitively] every one to bestow in honor of the Prince those last gifts and presentes. Now when there is a mighty heape of the said spiceries gotten together, so that the whole roome is filled therewith, then all the Gentlemen of the Knights order first ride about that edifice, marching in a certaine measure, and therewith in their courses and recourses observe a warlike kind of motion round, in just measure and number. The open chariots likewise are driven about by courteours in purple robes of honor sitting thereupon to guide and direct them with visards [masks] on their faces resembling all the redoubted captaines and renowmed Emperors of Rome. These ceremonies thus performed, the Prince that next succeedeth in the Empire takes a torch and first himselfe sets it to the tabernacle aforesaid: then all the rest from every side put fire under, so that foorthwith every place being full of the said dry fuell and odors, kindle and catch fire mightily. Then straightwaies from the highest and least tabernacle, as it were out of some lover [louvre] or high turret together with the fire put underneath, an Eagle was let flie, and the same was supposed to carry up the Princes soul unto heaven. And so from that time forward was the Emperor reputed and by the Romanes adored among the rest of the Gods. Thus much by way of disgression and beside the matter: let us resume.

68. Antoninus Caracalla the sonne of Severus persued the reliques of the war by his captaines for a while in Britaine: but soone after he made peace, surrendring to the enemy their territories and castles. Howbeit in a spirit of ambition he assumed to himselfe in his stile the name of Britannicus, yea and of Britannicus Maximus His brother Geata likewise took upon him the title and addition of Britannicus. For we have seen his mony coined with this Inscription, IMP. CAES. P. SEPT. GETA PIVS. AVG. BRIT. PONTIF. TRI. P. III COS. II PP. From this time forward, writers have in long silence passed over the affaires of Britaine. For Alexander Severus was not slaine, as some would have it, in Sicila a towne of Britaine, but in Gaule. This certaine evidence onely have wee out of an antique stone, that Nonnius Philippus was here Propretor under Gordianus the yonger.

69. Whiles Gallienus the Emperor gave himselfe over to all maner of riotousnesse, the State of Rome, either through the carelesse managing of affaires, or by some inclination of the Destinies, lay dismembred, as it were, and maimed in all parts, and a heavy rent there was and revolt of this province from the Romane Captaine. For thirty tyrants there were who in divers places usurped rule and dominion: among whom Lollianus Victorinus, Posthumus, the Tetrici and Marius bare soveraign sway, as I suppose, in this Iland. For their coines are here in great abundance and digged up daily. Under Aurelian, that notable bibber Bonosus, a Britain borne, entred upon the Empire together with Proculus, who claimed to himselfe all Britaine, Spaine and Braccata Galia, which provinces Florianus had for two moneths governed, but being in a long and bloody battell vanquished by Probus, he hanged himselfe, whereupon this jest went commonly on him, there hangs a tankard, and not a man.

70. Howbeit Probus was welcommed into Britaine with new troubles and commotions. For one, whom Probus himselfe, induced by the commendation of his familiar friend Victorinus Maurus, had promoted to an office of state, practiced a revolt. For which he fell out by way of expostulation with Victorinus, who having gotten leave to depart unto the said party, and feining that he fled and was escaped from the Emperor, beeing kindly entertained of the tyrant slue him in the night and returned to Probus, and therewith was the province rid of these broiles. But who this Tyrant was, no man hath related. Howbeit, he may seem to be that Cl. Com. Laelianus whose peeces of coine are found in this Iland, and not elsewhere. Moreover, Probus sent hither the Burgundians and Vandals whom he had subdued, and granted them places to inhabit: who afterwards, so often as any one went about to raise sedition, stood the Romanes in good stead. Now, whereas Vopiscus writeth that Probus permitted the Britans to have vines, there is a right learned man that feareth lest hee have inconsideratly put this down in writing, as if this land were unfit for vineyards: and yet it hath vines, and for certain it is known that it had very many. In regard of so many tyrants rising up in these daies within this province, Porphyrie, who lived in this age, cried out in these termes, Britaine a fertile Province of tyrants.

71. After this, Carus Augustus the Emperor allotted by decree this our country, together with Gaule, Spaine and Illyricum unto his sonne Carinus. That he warred here, some there be that slightly, but how truly I wot not, gather out of these verses of Nemesianus,

Neither may I the wars in silence hide
Dispatcht of late with happy hand in North
By thee, Carine, thy father Deifi' d,
Who dost well nere surpasse in works of worth.

Under Dioclesian, Carausius a Menapian borne, a man of very base parentage, howbeit inventive and active withall, for his valour shewed in battels at sea became renowmed, was ordained Captaine of Bologne in Gaule to put back and drive away the Saxons and Frankners that troubled the seas. This Carausius, having at first from time to time taken many of the Barbarians prisoners, and yet neither brought in all the booty and pillage into the Emperors treasury, nor made restitution of goods unto the Provincials: afterwards when as hee vanquished and subdued but few of them, began deeply to be suspected, that of set purpose he admitted the Barbarians to enter, to the end in their passage by he might intercept them with booty, and so by this occasion enrich himselfe, whereupon Maximian Augustus the Emperor gave commandement that he should be killed. Whereof he having certain intelligence, tooke upon him the Imperiall ensignes and seized Britain into his own hands, withdrew the navy that lay in defence of Gaule, built many ships after the Romane manner, adjoined to himselfe the Romane Legion, kept out the companies of forrain souldiers, assembled and drew together the French Merchants to muster, fortified Bologne with a garison, conveied away and tooke to his owne use the publike revenewes of Britain and Batavia, allured by the spoiles of whole provinces no small power of barbarian forces to be his associates, and the Franks especially, whom he trained to sea-service, and in a word, made all the sea coasts every way dangerous to passage. To the vanquishing of him, Maximianus set forward with a puissant army, out of which som there were who in the very voiage suffered death gloriously for Christs sake: but when he was come to the sea-side, being skared partly for want of sea-souldiers, and partly with the rage of the British Ocean, staied there; and having made a fained peace with Carausius, yeelded unto him the rule of the Iland, considering he was taken to be the meeter man, both to command and also to defend the Inhabitants against the warlike nations. Hereupon it is, that wee have seen in the silver coines of Carausius two Emperors joining hands, with this circumscription, CONCORDIA AVG. But Maximian turned his forces upon the Frankners, who then held Batavia, and had secretly under hand sent aid unto Carausius: whom hee susrprized on such a sudden, that he forced them to submission. In this meane while, Carausius governed Britain with incorrupt and unstained reputation, and in exceeding great peace: against the the Barbarians, as writeth Ninnius the disciple of Elvodugus, hee reedified the wal between the mouths of Cluda and Carunus, and fortified the same with 7 castles, and built a round house of polished stone upon the bank of the river Carun, which took name of him, erecting therewith a triumphall arch in remembrance of victory. Howbeit Buchanan thinketh verily it was the Temple of Terminus, as we will write in Scotland.

72. When Dioclesian and Maximian, as well to keep that which was woon, as to recover what was lost, had taken to them Constantius Chlorus and Maximianus Galerius to be Caesars, Constantius, having levied and enrolled an armie, came with great speed and sooner than all men thought to Bologne in France, which also is called Gessoriacum, a towne that Carausius had fortified with a strong garison; and they laid siege unto it round about. By pitching logs fast into the earth at the every entry, and piling huge stones one upon another in maner of a rampire, they excluded the sea, and tooke from the towne the benefit of their haven: which damme the strong and violent current of the Ocean beating against it forcibly for many daies altogether could not breake and beare down: no sooner was the place yeelded, but the first tide that rose made such a breach into the said rampire that it was wholly disjointed and broken in sunder. And whiles he rigged and prepared both here and elsewhere an Armada for the recovery of Britain, he rid Batavia, which was held by the Francks, from all enemies, and translated many of them into the Romane nations, for to till their waste and desert territories.

73. In this meane time Allectus a familiar friend of Carausius, who under him had the government of the State, slew him by a treacherous wile, and put upon himself the imperial purple robe. Which when Constantius heard, he having manned and armed divers fleets, drave Allectus to such doubtfull terme, as being altogether void of counsell, and to seek what to doe, he found then and never before that he was not fensed with the Ocean, but enclosed within it. And withall, hoisting up saile in a tempestuous weather and troubled sea, by meanes of a mist which over-spread the sea, he passed by the enemies fleet unawares to them, which was placed at the Isle of Wight, in espiall and ambush to discover and intercept him: and no sooner were his forces landed upon the coast of Britaine, but he set all his owne ships on fire, that his Souldiers might repose no trust in saving themselves by flight. Allectus himselfe, when he espied the Navy of Constantius under saile and approaching toward him, forsook the sea side which he kept, and as he fled lighted upon Asclepiodotus Grand Seneschal of the Praetorium, but in so fearful a fit, and like a mad man, he hastned his owne death, that he neither put his footmen in battell ray [array], nor marshalled those troupes which he drew along with him in good order, but, casting off his purple garment that he might not be known, rushed in with the mercenary Barbarians, and so in a tumultuarie skirmish was slaine, and hardly by the discoverie of one man found among the dead carcases of the Barbarians, which lay thicke spread every where over the plaines and hils. But the Frankners and others of the barbarous souldiers which remained alive after the battell, thought to sacke London, and so to take their flight and be gone: at which verie instant, as good hap was, the souldiers of Constantius, which by reason of a misty and foggy aire were severed from the rest, came to London and made a slaughter of them in all places thorowout the citie, and procured not only safetie to the citizens in the execution of their enemies, but also a pleasure in the sight thereof. By this victorie was the province recovered, after it had been, by usurpation, held seven yeeres or thereabout under Carausius, and three under Allectus. Whereupon Eumenius unto Constantius writeth thus, O brave victorie of much importance and great consequence; yea and worthy of manifold triumphs, whereby Britaine is restored, whereby the nation of the Frankners is utterly destroyed, and whereby upon many people beside, found accessarie to that wicked conspiracie, there is imposed a necessitie of obedience and allegeance, and in one word, whereby for assurance of perpetuall quietnesse the seas are scoured and cleansed. And as for thee, o invincible Caesar, make thy boast and spare not, that thou hast found out a new world, and by restoring unto the Romane puissance their glorie for prowese at sea, hast augmented the Empire with an Element greater than all Lands. And a little after, unto the same Constantius, Britaine is recovered so, as that those nations also which adjoyne unto the bounds of the same Island become obedient to your will and plesure .

74. In the last yeeres of Dioclesian and Maximian, when as the East Church had been for many yeeres already polluted with the blood of martyrs, the violence of that furious persecution went on, and passed even hither also into the west, and many Christians suffered martyrdome. Among whom, the principall were Albanus of Verlam [S. Albans], Iulius and Aaron of Isca, a citie called otherwise Caer Leon &., of whom I will write in their proper place. for then the Church obtained victorie with most honourable and happie triumph, when as with ten yeeres massacres it could not be vanquished.

75. When Dioclesian and Maximian gave over their Empire, they elected that Constantius Chlorus for Emperour, who untill that time had ruled the State under the title of Caesar, and to him befell Italie, Africke, Spaine, France, and Britaine, but Italy and Africke became the Provinces of Galerius, and Constantius stood contented with the rest. This Constantius, what time as hee served in Britaine under Aurelian, tooke to wife Helena daughter of Coelus, or Coelius a British Prince [or perhaps, punningly, "a daughter of heaven, or Coelius"], on whom he he begat that noble Constantine the Great, in Britaine. For so, together with that great Historiographer Baronius, the common opinion of all other writers with one consent beareth witnesse, unlesse it be one or two Greeke authors of late time, and those dissenting one from the other, and a right learned man, grounding upon a corrupt place of Julius Firmicius. Howbeit, compelled he was by Maximian to put her away, for to marry Theodora his daughter. This is that Helena which in antike inscriptions is called VENERABILIS and PIISSIMA AVGVSTA, and for Christian piety, for clensing Jerusalem of Idols, and building a goodly Church in the place where our Lord suffered, and for finding the Saving Crosse of Christ, is so highly commended of Ecclesiasticall writers. And yet both Jewes and Gentiles termed her by way of ignominy and reproach Stabularia , because shee (a most godly Princesse) sought out the crib or manger wherein Christ was borne, and in the place where stood that hostelry, founded a Church. Hereupon S. Ambrose: They say that this Lady was at first an Inholder or Hostesse, &. Well, this good hostesse Helena hastned to Jerusalem, and sought out the place of our Lords passion, and made so diligent search for the Lords crib. This good hostesse was not ignorant of that host which cured the wayfaring mans hurts that was wounded by theeves. This good hostesse chose to be reputed a dung-farmer, that she might thereby gaine Christ. And verily no lesse praise and commendation goeth of her husband Constantius for his piety and moderation, A man who, having utterly rejected the superstition of the ungodly in worshipping divers gods, willingly of himselfe acknowledged one God, the Ruler of all things. Whereupon, to try the faith and beleefe in God of his owne Courtiers, hee put it to their free choice, either to sacrifice unto those gods, and so to stay with him, or els to refuse and depart. But those that would depart rather than renounce and forsake their faith to God, he kept with him still, casting off all the rest, who he supposed would prove disloial unto him, seeing they had abandoned their beleefe in the true God. This most noble and worthy Emperor in his last British expedition against the Caledonians and the Picts died at Yorke, leaving behind him his sonne Constantine as Emperor, his successor and Caesar elect.

76. Some few daies before the death of Constantius, his sonne Constantine rode from Rome to Yorke on post horses: and the rest which were kept at the charges of the State he maimed and lamed all the way as hee went, because no man should pursue him, and there he received his fathers last breath. Whereupon an ancient Orator spake thus unto him, Thou entred this sacred palace not as a competitor of the Empire, but as heire apparent and ordained already, and foorthwith that fathers house of thine saw thee, the lawfull successor. For there was no doubt but that the inheritance duly belonged unto him, whom the destines had ordained the first begotten sonne unto the Emperor. Yet for al that, constrained in maner by the souldiers, and especially by the means of Erocus King of the Almanes (who by way of aid accompanied him) advanced hee was to the Imperiall dignity. The souldiers, regarding rather the publike good of the common-wealth than following his affections, invested him in the purple robe, weeping and setting spurs to his horse, because hee would avoid the endevor of the armie that called so instantly upon him, &.; but the felicity of the common-wealth overcame his modesty. And hereof it is that the Panegyrist crieth out in these words, O fortunate Britaine and more happy now than all other lands, that hast the first sight of Constantine Caesar! And now Caesar at his very entrance, having first pursued the reliques of that war which his father had begun against the Caledonians and other Picts, and set upon those Britans more remote, and the Inhabitants of the Ilands lying there, the witnesses as one said of the Suns setting, some of them he subdued by force and armes, others (for you must thinke he aspired to Rome and higher matters) by offering fees and stipends he allured and drew to be associates: and there were besides of them, whom of open enemies he made his friends, and of old adversaries his very familiars. Afterwards, having vanquished the Frankners in Batavia, and that with so great glory that he stamped certain golden peeces of coine (where I have seene one) with the image of a woman sitting under a Trophee and leaning with one hand upon a crosse-bow or a brake, with this subscription, FRANCIA, and this writing about it, GAVDIVM ROMANORVM. Having also overthrown the Barbarians in Germany, won unto him the Germane and French Nations, and leavied souldiers out of Britaine, France and Germany, to the number in all of 90000 foot and 8000 horsemen, he departed into Italy, overcame Maxentius, who at Rome had challenged to himselfe the empire, and having conquered Italy and vanquished the Tyrant, he restored unto the whole world the blessed gifts of secure liberty, as wee find in the Inscription of an Antiquity, INSTINCTV DIVINITATIS, MENTIS MAGNITVDINE, CVM EXERCITV SVO TAM DE TYRANNO QVAM DE OMNI EIVS FACTIONE VNO TEMPORE IVSTIS REMPVBLICAM VLTVS EST ARMIS, By instinct of the divine power, with great magnanimity and the helpe of his own army, at one time in the behalfe of the common-wealth, he was by lawfull war revenged as well of the tyrant himselfe, as of his whole faction.

77. Howbeit, that he returned again into Britain, Eusebius implieth in these words: Constantine, quoth he, passed over to the Britans enclosed on every side within the banks of the Ocean: whom when he had overcome, hee began to compasse in his mind other parts of the world, to the end he might come in time to succour those that wanted helpe. And in another place, After he had furnished his armie with mild and modest instructions of piety, he invaded Britain, that he might likewise instruct those who dwell environed round about with the waves of the Ocean bounding the suns setting, as it were, with his coasts. And of Britain are these verses of Optatianus Porphyrius unto Constantine to be understood:

From Northern bounds, the land throughout where bleak
North-west winds blowen
Lov' s lawes of peace right ancient, and ever during knowen:
Prest alwaies in their loialtie for service in thy right,
With valiant and couragious heart, doth all thy battels fight.
Thus Nations fierce it drives to rout, and doth in chase pursue,
Yeelding to thee right willingly all paiments just and due:
Victors from hence most valorous, thy lot it is to have,
And under thee unfoiled bands advance their ensignes brave.

About this time, as evidently appeareth by the Code of Theodosius , Pacatianus was the Vicarius of Britaine: for by this time the Province had no more Propraetors nor Lieutenants, but in stead thereof was a Vicar substituted.

78. This Emperor Constantine was right happy for very many praises, and those (I assure you) most justly deserved: for he not onely set the Romane Empire in free estate, but also having scattered the thicke cloud of Superstitions, let in the true light of Christ, by setting open the Temples to the true God, and shutting them against the false. For now no sooner was the blustering tempest and storme of persecution blowen over, but the faithfull Christians, who in the time of trouble and danger had hidden themselves in woods, deserts, and secret caves, being come abroad in open sight, reedifie the Churches ruinate to the very ground, the Temples of holy Martyrs they found, build, finish, and erect, as it were, the banners of victorie in every place, celebrate festivall holidaies, and with pure heart and mouth also, performe their sacred solemnities. And thereupon he is renomed under these titles: IMPERATOR FORTISSIMVS AC BEATISSIMVS, PIISSIMVS, FOELIX, VRBIS LIBERATOR, QVIETIS FVNDATOR, REIPVBLICAE INSTAVRATOR, PVBLICAE LIBERTATIS AVCTOR, RESTITVTOR VRBIS ROMAE ATQVE ORBIS, MAGNVS, MAXIMVS, INVICTVS, INVICTISSIMVS, PERPETVVS, SEMPER AVGVSTVS, RERVM HVMANARVM OPTIMVS PRINCEPS, VIRTVTE FORTISSIMVS ET PIETATE CLEMENTISSIMVS. Et in legibus, QVI VENERANDA CHRISTIANORVM FIDE ROMANVM MVNIVIT IMPERIVM, DIVVS, DIVAE MEMORIAE, DIVINAE MEMORIA &., that is, Most valiant and blessed Emperour, Most pious, Happie, Redeemer of Rome Citie, Founder of Peace, Restorer of Rome Citie and the whole world, Great, Most great, Invincible, Most invincible, Perpetuall, Ever Augustus, The best Prince of the World, For vertue most valiant, and for pietie most mercifull. Also, who fortified the Romane Empire with the reverend Faith of the Christians, Sacred, Of sacred Memorie, Of Divine memorie, &. And hee was the first Emperour, as farre as I could ever to this time observe, who in coines of money and publike workes was honoured with this inscription, DOMINVS NOSTER, that is, Our Lord, although I know full well, that Dioclesian was the first after Caligula who suffered himselfe openly to be called Lord.

79. Howbeit, in this so worthy an Emperour, his politike wisdome was wanting in this point, that he made the way for barbarous people into Britaine, Germanie, and Gaule. For when he had subdued the northerne Nations, so as that now he stood in no feare of them, and for to quell the power of the Persians, who in the East parts threatned the Romane Empire, had built Constantinople a new Citie, those Legions that lay in defense of the Marches he partly translated into the East, and in their stead built forts and holds, and partly withdrew into cities more remote from the said marches: so that soone after his death the Barbarians, forcing the townes and fortresses, brake into the Provinces. And in this respect there goeth a very bad report of him in Zosimus, as being the main and first subverter of a most flourishing Empire.

80. Seeing moreover that Constantine altered the forme of the Romane government, it shall not be impertinent in this verie place to note summarily in what sort Britaine was ruled under him, and afterward in the next succeeding ages. He ordained foure Praefects of the Praetorium, to wit, of the East, of Illyricum, of Italie, and of Gaule: two Leaders or Commanders of the Forces, the one of footmen, the other of horsemen in the West, whom they termed praesentales .

For civill government there ruled Britain the Praefect of the Praetorium, or Grand Seneschall in Gaule, and under him the Vicar Generall of Britaine, who was his vice-gerent, and honoured with the title spectabilis , that is, notable or remarkable. Him obeied respectively, to the number of the Provinces, two Consular Deputies, and three Presidents, who had the hearing of civill and criminall causes.

For militarie affaires, there ruled the Leader, or Commander of the footmen in the West: at whose disposition were the Count or Lieutenant of Britaine, the Count or Lieutenant of the Saxon-coast along Britaine, and the Duke of Britaine, stiled every one spectabiles, that is, Remarkable.

The Count Lieutenant of Britaine seemeth to have ruled the inland parts of the Island: who had with him seven companies of fotmen, and nine cornets or troups of horsemen.

The Count or Lieutenant of the Saxon coast, namely, who defended the maritime parts against the Saxons, and is named by Ammianus comes maritimi tractus , that is, Lieutenant of the Maritime tract, for defence of the Sea coast, had seven companies of footmen, two guidons of horsemen, the second Legion, and one cohort.

The Generall of Britain, who defended the Marches or Frontiers against the Barbarians, had the command of eight and thirty garrison forts, wherin kept their Stations 14000 foot and 900 horsemen. So that in those daies (if Pancirolus have kept just computation) Britaine maintained 19200 footmen and 1700 horsemen, or much thereabout, in ordinarie. Besides all these, comes sacrarum largitionum , that is, the Receiver of the Emperours Finances or publique revenues, had under him in Britaine the Rationall or Auditor of the summes and revenues of Britaine, the Provost of the Augustian, that is, Emperours Treasures in Britaine, and the Procurator of the Gynegium or Draperie in Britaine, in which the clothes of the Prince and souldiers were woven. The Count also of private Revenues had his Rationall or Auditour of privat State of Britain, to say nothing of the sword, Fense Schoole , [gladiatorial school] Procurator in Britaine (whereof an old inscription maketh mention), and of other officers of an inferiour degree.

81. When Constantine was dead, Britaine fell unto his Sonne Constantine: who upon an ambitious humour and desire of rule, breaking into the possessions of other men, was slaine by his brother Constans. With which victorie he was so puffed up, that he seized Britaine and the rest of the Provinces into his owne hands, and with his brother Constantius came into this Island. And thereupon Julius Firmicus, not that Pagane the Astrologer, but the Christian, speaketh in this wise unto them: Yee have in Winter time (a thing that never was done before, nor shall be againe) subdued under your oares the swelling and raging billowes of the British Ocean. the waves now of the sea, until this time well neere unknowen unto us, have trembled, and the Britans were sore afraid to see the unexpected face of the Emperour. What would yee more? The very Elements are vanquished, have given place unto your vertues. This Constans it was that called a Counsell to Sardica against the Arians: unto which there assembled three hundred Bishops, and among them the Bishops of Britaine; who having condemned the Heretikes and established the Nicaene Creed, by their voices and judgements approoved the innocencie of Athanasius. But this Prince, being youthfull, cast behinde him all care of the Empire, and became drowned in pleasures; and thereby growing grievous to the Provincials, and nothing acceptable to his souldiers, was by Magnentius, captaine of the Jovii and Herculii, as he hunted, beset in a towne called Saint Helens, and there killed, fulfilling thereby a prophesie, which was that he should end his life in his grandmothers lap, of whom that towne indeed tooke the name. This Magnentius, having a Britan to his father but borne among the Laeti, a people in France, when he had now slaine Constans, invested himselfe in France into the Imperiall dignitie, and wonne Britaine unto him to take his part: but having been for three yeeres together coursed by his brother Constantius, who sharply made war upon him, laid violent hands on himselfe; a fortunate Prince as ever any was for seasonable temperature of the weather, for plentie of fruits, and securitie from dangers of Barbarians, points which are by the vulgar people reputed to make especially for the glorie of Princes. But why this Magnentius should be called Taporus in an old antiquitie of stone digged up long since at Rome let other men enquire. For thus it is read, speaking of the Obeliske erected in the cirque or shew-place:

Meanewhile that Tyrant Taporus of Rome did havocke make,
Augustus gift unplaced lay, none would it undertake.

At this time, the Generall of all the warre-forces thorowout Britaine was Gratianus surnamed Funarius , the father of Valentinian the Emperour. And called he was Funarius , for that, being yet a stripling or young springall, as he went about with a rope to sell, he gave not ground to five souldiers that did set upon him, and assaid with all their force to snatch the same from him. This Gratianus being returned to his owne home, and discharged of his militarie oath, was fined by Constantius in the confiscation and losse of his goods, because he was reported to have lodged Magnentius and given him entertainment.

82. When Magnentius was dead and gone, Britaine submitted it selfe to the government of Constantius, and foorthwith was hither sent Paulus the Notarie, a Spaniard borne, one verily under a smooth countenance lying secret and close, but exceeding subtill to devise and find out all the casts and wily meanes to endanger men. That he might bring certaine martiall and military men within danger who had conspired with Magnentius, when as they could not chuse nor make resistance, after he had outrageously come over them in maner of a flood he suddenly seised upon the fortunes and estates of many. Thus went he on stil making spoile, yea and undoing a great number, imprisoning such as were free borne, and greeving their bodies with bonds yea and brusing some of them with manacles, and al, by patching and peecing many crimes together laid to their charge, which were as false as might be. Whereupon was committed so wicked an act as branded the daies of Constantius with a perpetuall note of infamy. There was one Martin that ruled those provinces as Vicar or vice-gerent, who greevously lamenting the miseries and calamities of the innocent, and beseeching the said Paulus oftentimes that the guiltlesse might be spared, when hee saw that hee could not prevaile, threatned to depart, to the end that this malicious inquisitor and persecutour, at leastwise for feare thereof, might give over at length to enveagle and induce into open danger men bred and nuzzeled in quiet peace. Paulus, supposing heereby that his trade decaied (as hee was a vengible fellow in linking matters together, whereupon he came to be surnamed Catena, that is, a Chain), drew in the said Vicar himselfe (who still maintained the defence of those whom hee had tendred and spared), to have his part in common perils. And hee went very neere to bring him also prisoner bound, with tribunes and many others, before the Emperours privie Counsell. At which extremetie of mischiefe so imminent, hee, being thorowly provoked, caught up a dagger and assaulteth the same Paulus: but because his right hand failed him, so that he was not able to give him a deadly wound, hee stabbed himselfe into the side with the said weapon drawen as it was. And so by this foule kinde of death departed he this life (a right just man), after he had assaied to stay and delay the wofull and piteous cases of many. Which wicked parts thus committed, Paulus, all embrued with blood, returned into the Princes Court, bringing many with him over-laden with chaines, as being men dejected and plunged into miserable calamitie and heavie plight. At whose comming the rackes were made readie, the executioner prepared dragges and tortures, and of them many were proscribed and outlawed, some banished, and others suffred punishment by sword. At length himselfe also under Julian being burnt quicke, by the judgement of God the Revenger of such outrageous crueltie, paid most justly for his deserts.

83. After this when as in Britaine (Ammianus Marcellinus is mine Author), upon the breach of peace, by the rodes of Scots and Picts (savage nations) the places neere bordering upon them, appointed for the Frontiers, were forraied, and the provinces, wearied with calamities past, that came so thick one in the neck of another, and put in frightfull perplexitie, Julian, whom Constantius had declared to be Caesar and colleague in the empire, wintering about Paris and distracted with sundry cares, feared to go and aid the provinciall people beyond-sea, as we reported that Constantius before time had done, lest hee should leave Gaule without a governour: considering withall, that the Alamans were even then also incited, and set upon crueltie and hostilitie, thought good therefore it was to send over into these parts, for to compose and settle all matters, one Lupicinus, Master at that time of the Armour: a warlike Knight, I assure you, and skilfull in military affaires, but a man of a haughtie spirit, and setting up his eie-browes aloft like hornes, and withall speaking bigge and (as folke say) in a tragicke Key upon the stage; concerning whom, the question was a long time, whether he were more covetous than cruell. Having raised therefore an aid of light appointed men, to wit, the Heruleans, Batavians, and many companies of the Maesians, the foresaid Generall in the heart of winter came to Bologne: and there having gotten shipping, and embarked all his souldiers, observing a good gale of a forewind, arrived at Rhutupiae, a place over against Bologne, and so set forward to London: that from thence, after counsell taken according to the qualitie of his businesse, he might hasten the sooner to give battell.

84. Under this Constantius, who mightily favoured the Arians, their heresie crept into Britaine, wherein from the first yeeres of the great Constantine a sweet concent and harmonie of Christ the head and his members had continued, untill such time as that deadly and perfidious Arianisme, like to a pestiferous Serpent from the other side of the sea, casting up her venome upon us, caused brethren dwelling together to be disjoyned piteously one from another: and thus, the way, as it were, being made over the Ocean, all other cruell and fell beasts wheresoever, shaking out of their horrible mouthes the mortiferous [deadly] poison of every heresie, inflicted the deadly stings and wounds of their teeth upon this our country, desirous evermore to heare some noveltie, but holding nought at all steadfastly. In favour of these Arians, Constantius summoned foure hundred Bishops of the west Church to Ariminum: for whom the Emperour, by his commandement, allowed corne and victuals. But that was thought of the Aquitanes, French and Britans an unseemely thing: refusing therefore that allowance out of the Emperours coffers, they chose rather to live at their own proper charges. Three onely out of Britaine, for want of their owne, had maintenance from the State, refusing the contribution offered unto them from the rest: reputing it more safe and voide of corruption to charge the common treasure, than the private state of any person.

85. After this, when Constantius was departed this world, Julianus that Apostata, who had taken upon him the title of Augustus against Constantius, first drave out Palladius, who had been master of Offices, into Britaine, and sent away Alipius, who had governed Britain as Deputy Lieutenant, to reedifie Jerusalem: but fearfull round balles of flaming fire breaking foorth nere unto the foundations, skared him from that enterprise, and many a thousand of Jewes who wrestled in vaine against the decree of God, were overwhelmed with the ruines. This dissolute Augustus, and in his beard only a Philosopher, feared (as hath erewhile been said) to come and aid the poore distressed Britans: and yet from hence he caried out every yeere great store of corne to maintain the Roman garisons in Germany.

86. When Valentinian the Emperor steered the helme of the Romane Empire, what time as thorow the whole world the trumpets resounded nothing but the warlike alarme, the Picts, Saxons, Scots and Attacots vexed the Britans with continuall troubles and annoiances. Fraomoarius then King of the Almanes was translated hither, and by commission made Tribune or Marshall over a Band of the Almanes, for number and power in those daies highly renowmed to represse the incursions of these barbarous nations. Nevertheless Britain was through the generall conspiracie of those Barbarians afflicted and brought to extreme distresse, Nectaridius Comes or Lieutenant of the maritime tract slaine, and Bulchobaudes the Generall by an ambush of the enemies circumvented. The intelligence of which occurrences when it was brought unto Rome with great horror, the Emperor first sent Severus, being even then Lord High Steward of his houshold, to redresse what was done amiss, in case his hap had been to have seen the wished end: who being within a while after called way, Jovinus went to the same parts, sent back Provetursides in post, minding to crave the helpe of a puissant armie. For they avouched that the urgent necessary occasions required so much. At the last, so many and so fearefull calamities were by daily rumors reported as touching the same Iland, that Theodosius was elected and appointed to make speed thither, a man of approved skill in warlike affaires most fortunatelie atchieved, who having levied and gotten unto him a couragious company of yong gallents, to furnish as well Legions as cohorts, put himselfe in his journey, with a brave shew of confidence leading the way. At the same time the Picts, divided into two nations the Dicalidones and Vecturiones, the Attacots likewise a warlike people, and the Scots, ranging in divers parts did much mischiefe where they went. A for the cohorts of Gaule, the Frankners and Saxons confining upon them, brake out and made rodes where ever they could either by land or sea, and what with driving booties, with firing towns, and killing poore captives, made foule worke there. To stay these wofull miseries, if prosperous fortune would have given leave, this most vigorous and valiant Captain intending a voiage to the utmost bounds of the earth, when he was come to sea side at Bologne, which lieth divided from the opposite tract of land by a narrow streit ebbing and flowing, where the water is wont to swell on high with terrible tides, and again to fall down flat and be like even plains without any harme of sailer or passenger, from thence having sailed and leasurely crossed the said sea, he arrived at Rhutupiae, a quiet rode and harbour over against it. from whence after that the Batavians, Heruli, Jovii and Victories (companies confident of their strength and power who followed) were come, he departed: and marching toward London, an old town, which the posterity called Augusta, having divided his troupes into sundry parts he set upon those companies of roving and robbing enemies, even when they were heavy loden with booty and pillage. And having quickly discomfited those that drave before them their prisoners bound, and cattell, he forced them to forego the prey, which the most miserable tributaries had lost. In the end, after full restitution made of all, save only some small parcels bestowed upon his wearied souldiers, he entred most joifully into the city, overset before with distresses and calamities, but now suddenly refreshed; so far foorth as hope of recovery and safety might effect: and there beeing raised up with this luckie hand to adventure greater exploits, and yet casting with himselfe projects promising security, he staied doubtfull of the future events, as having learned by the information of revolting fugitives and confession of captives, that so great a multitude of sundrie nations, and a stiffe-necked people of so fell and fierce a disposition, could not possibly be vanquished but by secret wiles and sudden excursions. Finally, after proclamations published and promises made of impunity, he summoned as well the traiterous runagates as many others that went with free pasport dispersed sundry waies, to present themselves ready for service. Upon which summons given, so soone as most of them were returned, he as one pricked forward with so good a motive, and yet held backe by heavy cares, called for Civilis by name (who was to rule Britain as Deputy), to bee sent unto him; a man of a very quicke hasty nature, but a precise keeper of justice and righteousnesse: likewise for Dulcitius, a redoubted Captaine and right skilfull in feats of armes. Afterwards, having gotten heart and courage to him, he went from Augusta, which in old time they called Londinium, well appointed with industrious and considerate souldiers, and so brought exceeding great succour to the ruinate and troubled estate of the Britans, gaining before hand all places everey where for his advantage to forelay the Barbarians in ambush, and giving commandement of no service to the very common souldiers, but he would himselfe cheerfully take the first assay thereof. In this sort performing as well the offices of an active and hardy souldier, as the carefull charge of a right noble Generall, having discomfited and put to flight divers nations, whom insolent pride fed with security incited and set on fire to assaile and invade the Romane Empire, he having laid the foundation of quiet peace for a long time, restored both cities and castles, which verily had received manifold dammages, to as good a passe as ever they were at. Now there had hapned whiles he atchieved these exploits an horrible act like to have bred some great danger, but that in the very first enterprise it was quenched and suppressed. There was one Valentinus of Valeria Pannonia, a man of a proud spirit, brother to the wife of that pestilent Maximinus, first Deputy Lieutenant, and after President, for some notable offence banished into Britain; who being impatient of rest like a noisom beast rose up in commotion against Theodosius, practising mischievous plots and an insurrection upon a certain swelling pride and envie, for that he perceived him alone able to withstand his horrible designes. Howbeit, casting all about for many meanes both secret and apert [open], whiles the puffing humour of his infinite and unsatiable desire still encreaed, he solicited as wel the banished persons as souldiers, when he spied his opportunity, promising reward, for to allure and draw them on to some actuall attempt. And now as the time drew neere when these enterprises should be put in execution and take effect, the Generall being advertised of all these projects, and forwarder of the twaine to adventure, resolute also upon an high mind to take revenge of such as were attaint and convict, commited verily Valentinus with some few of his inward complices unto Captain Dulcitius, for to be put to death; but fore-casting withall the future events (as hee was a man in militarie skill surpassing all others of his time), he would not suffer any farther inquisition and examination to be had of the conspirators, for feare lest by striking a terror among so many, the tempestuous troubles of the provinces, which were well appeased, might revive again. Turning himselfe therefore from this businesse to the reforming of many enormities, which of necessity were to be regarded, and having cleered all dangers (for evidently seen it was that fortune was so propitious and good unto him, as that she never forsooke but sped his enterprises) he reedified the Cities and those garison forts whereof we spake; he fortified also the frontires with standing watches and strong forefenses. Having thus recovered the province which had yeelded subjection to the enemies, hee so brought it to the former ancient state, that upon his own motion to have it so, it both had a lawfull governour to rule it, and afterward also was called Valentia, for the Princes will and pleasure. The Areans, a kind of men instituted by those of ancient times (concerning whom I have related in the Acts of Constans the Emperor) fallen by little and little into vices, he removed from their stations, as being openly convict that they were allured by great receits, or promise at least waies, of much reward, to have divers times discovered unto the Barbarians whatsoever was done or debated among us. For this indeed was their charge, to run to and fro by long journies, to intimate and make known unto our captaines all sturs that the people neere adjoining were about to make. Thus, after he had with very great approofe [approval] exploited these acts above rehersed, and others the like, he was sent for to the Princes court, and leaving the Provinces in much jollity, no lesse honored was he for his man and important victories, than either Furius Camillus or Papirius Cursor. And so being honorably accompanied and attended upon with the love and favor of all men as far as the narrow seas, with a gentle gale of wind he passed over and came to the Princes camp, where with joy and praise he was received. For these deeds of his so bravely atchieved, in honor of him there was an image set up, resembling a man of armes on horseback, as Symmachus giveth us to understand, speaking to his sonne Theodosius the Emperor in this wise: The author , quoth he, of your kindred and stock, Captain Generall sometime in Afrik and Britain both, was among other ancient titles consecrated by the most honorable order with images of Knighthood. And Claudian in his commendation with full pen wrote poetically thus:

In frozen Caledonian fields he that encamped lay,
And in his harnesse, Liby heats endured day by day:
The blacke Mores eke who terrified, and conquered British coast,
Who North and South subdu' d alike, and wasted with his host.
What did the lasting cold to them and frosty climats gaine,
Or seas unknown? Embrude all with blood of Saxons slaine
The Orkneis were, with Pictish blood well heated Thule was,
And ycie Ireland, Scots by heapes bewail' d with Out-alas.

In another place likewise of the same Prince:

Of whom the scorched Libyan coast dost stand in deadly feare,
And Thule, where no passage was for ships their saile to beare.
The nimble Mores he t' was that tam' d, and Picts likewise subdu' d,
The Picts, I say, by right so cal' d: and when he had pursued
The Scot with sword from place to place, the Hyperborean wave
With venterous ores he brake: and so in two fold trophees brave
All glittering under both the poles, he marched to and fro
The sands upon, where either sea by turnes doth eb and flow.

87. And concerning him Pacatus Drepanus: What should I speake , quoth he, of the Scot, driven backe again by him unto his fennes and bogs? The Saxon consume with battels at sea, &. After him, Gratian took upon him the Empire, who also proclaimed Theodosius (the son of that Theodosius of whom we have spoken already) Emperor. Whereat Maximus a Spaniard borne, his concurrent, and withall descended in right line from Constantius the Great, who also had before time been Generall over the army in Britain, was so highly discontented, that he took upon him the purple robe: or as Orosius reported, was against his will by the souldiers saluted Emperor; a valiant man, vertuous and worthy of the title of Augustus, but that against his allegeance he had by way of tyranny and usurpation attained to the place. Who at the first couragiously vanquished the Picts and Scots, that used to make many inrodes into the Province : afterwards with al the flower and strength wel neer of British forces, arived at the mouth of Rhene, and procured unto himselfe the whole puissance of the German armies: ordained the roiall seat of the Empire to be at Triers (whereupon stiled hee was by the name of Trevericus imperator ), and spreading, as Gildas saith, his wings the one as far as to Spaine, the other into Italy, with the terror only of his name levied tributes and pensions for souldiers pay, of the most fell and savage nations in Germanie. Against whom Gratianus having led an armie, after five daies skirmishing, being forsaken of his owne souldiers, and put to flight, sent Saint Ambrose Embassadour to treat for peace: which he obtained indeed, but the same full of treacherous guile. For Maximus suborned and sent under-hand one Andragathius, riding in a close litter or carroch [carriage], with a rumour spread abroad, that therein rode the wife of Gratian. Unto which, when Gratian was come for love of his wife, and had opened the said litter, forth leapes Andragathius with his companie, and slew him outright in the place. Whose bodies for to demand, was Ambrose sent a second time: howbeit not admitted, because he refused to communicate with those Bishops that sided with Maximus. Who being lifted up, and proud of these things hapning to his minde, appointed his sonne Victor to be Caesar, dealt cruelly with Gratians captaines, and setled the State in France. Theodosius Augustus, who governed in the East, at the requests or mandates rather of his his Embassadours, acknowledged him Emperour, and exhibited his image unto the Alexandrines for to bee seene in publicke place. And now having by violence and extortion entred upon the estates of all men, with the utter undoing of the common-wealth, hee fulfilled his owne greedy avarice. Hee made the defence of Catholike Religion his pretence to colour his tyrannie; Priscillian and certain of his Sectaries convict of hereticall and false doctrine in the Synode or Councell of Burdeaux, and appealing unto him, hee condemned to death; although Martin that most holy bishop of Tourain or Tours most humbly besought to forbeare shedding the bloud of those poore wretches: avouching that it was sufficient to deprive such as were judged heretikes, and put them out of their Churches by the definitive sentence of Bishops, and that it was a strange and unexampled hainous deed, that a secular Judge should determine causes of the church. And these were the first that, being executed by the civill sword, left a foule and dangerous precedent to posteritie. After this he entred Italie with so great terrour, that Valentinian, together with his mother, were glad to flie unto Theodosius, the cities of Italie received him, and did him all the honour that might bee: but the Bononians above the rest, among whom this Inscription is yet to be seene,

To our Great Lords, C. Maximus et Fl. Victor, Pious,
Happie, Alwaies Augusti, borne for the good of the Common-wealth.

88. Meanwhile Nannius and Quintinus, Masters in militarie skill, unto whom Maximus had committed the infancie of his sonne and the custodie of Gaule, gave the Frankners who annoied Gaule with their incursions a mightie great overthrow, and forced them to give hostages, and deliver into their hands the Authors of the warre. As for Valentinian, he earnestly besought Theodosius to succour him dispoiled of his empire by a tyrant, from whom for a good while he could have none other answer than this, That no marvel it is, if a seditious servant became superiour to that Lord who casteth off the true Lord indeed. For Valentinian was corrupted with Arianisme. Howbeit, wearied at length with his importunate praiers, he setteth forward in warlike maner against Maximus, who in the same time abode in Aquileia, very secure and fearlesse. For he had before-hand fortified the streits between the mountains with garisons, and the havens with shipping, so that with great alacritie and much confidence at the first, he welcomed Theodosius with one battel before Syscia in Pannonia, and afterwards most valiantly received him with another, under the leading of his brother Marcellus; but in both of them he sped so badly, that he withdrew himselfe secretly into Aquileia, where by his owne souldiers, as he dealt money among them, taken he was and devested of his imperiall ornaments, brought before Theodosius, who immediately delivered him into the hangmans hand to be executed, after that he had now worne the purple robe five yeeres. Whereupon Ausonius writeth thus in praise of Aquileia:

This was no place of name: but since that fresh desert gave grace,
Thou, Aquileia, of cities faire, shalt be the ninth in place,
A Colonie Italian, gainst hils Illyrian set,
For strong wals and commodious haven right well renowm' d: but yet
This passeth all the rest, that he his choice of thee did make
Against his latter daies, who did revengement justly take
Of Maximus: a base campe-Squire that sometimes knowen to be,
Had now usurped five yeeres past, and ruled with tyrannie.
Right happy thou, of Triumph such that had' st the joyfull sight,
Killing this Robber Rhutupine by maine Italian might.

Andragathius, whose state was now most desperate, cast himselfe from shipboard headlong into the Sea. Victor the sonne of Maximus, was in France defeated, taken prisoner and slaine. But those Britans who tooke part with Maximus, as some writers doe record, forcibly invaded Armorica in France, and there planted themselves. Now Theodosius presently after his victorie entred Rome with his Sonne Honorius in triumph, and published an Edict to this effect: No man so hardy as to challenge or claime that honour which the bold Tyrant had granted: but that such presumption should be condemned and reduced unto the former estate. And Valentian, in these words, All judgements and awards whatsoever that Maximus, the most wicked and detestable Tyrant that ever was, hath given forth to be promulged and enacted, we reverse and condemne. But Saint Ambrose in his funerall Sermon of Theodosius, crieth our in these terms, That Eugenius and Maximus, by their wofull example, doe testify in Hell, what a heavy thing it is to beare armes against their naturall Princes. To speak in a word, this victorie was held to be so worthy and memorable, that the Romans from thence forward solemnized that day everie yeere, as festivall.

89. There succeeded Theodosius in the West Empire his son Honorius, a child ten yeeres old; over whom was ordained as Tutor and Protector Flavius Stilicho, a man passing famous for a long time, as who being an inward companion of Theodosius in all his warres and victories, and by degrees of militarie service, advanced unto high authority and the Princes affinitie, in the end, cloied and glutted with prosperitie, and carried away through ambition, miserably lost his life. This man surely for certaine yeeres had a provident regard of the Empires good estate, and defended Britaine against the invasion of Picts, Scots, and Vandals. And hereof it is that Britaine speaketh thus of her selfe in Claudian:

"And me likewise at hand," quoth she, "to perish in despight
Of neighbour Nations Stilicho protected gainst their might,
What time the Scots all Ireland mov' d, offensive armes to take,
And with the stroke of enemies ores, the Sea much fome did make.
He brought to passe (his care was such) that I the Scotish warre
Should feare no more, nor dread the Picts, ne yet ken from a farre
(Along whose shore whiles I looke still when wavering winds will turne)
The Saxons comming under saile, my coasts to spoile and burne."

And thus for that time Britaine seemed safe enough from any danger of enemies. For in another place, that Poet writeth thus:

What ?cithet? seas more quiet now, that Saxons conquer' d are,
Or Britanie become secure, since Picts subdued were.

And when Alaricus King of the Gothes hovered about Rome, seeking meanes to assault and spoile it, that Legion which in the marches kept Station against the Barbarians was called from hence, as Claudian signifieth when he reckoneth up the aids sent in from all parts:

That Legion also came which did for British frontiers lie
In garrison, that curbs fell Scots, and doth peruse with eie
Those yron-brent [burned] markes in Picts now seene, all bloodlesse as they die.

In those daies flourished Fastidius a Bishop of Britain, and wrote bookes of divine learning, I assure you. Chrysanthus likewise the sonne of Bishop Martian, who having been a Consular deputy of Italy under Theodosius, and made Vicar of Britain, deserved that praise and admiration for his good managing of the common-weale, that he was against his will enstalled at Constantinople Bishop of the Novatians, who having made a schisme in that Church, and calling themselves Cathari , had Bishops apart of their own and sectaries, who stoutly but impiously denied, that such as after baptisme received fell by relapse into sinne, could not returne againe and bee saved. This that Bishop who, as we read in histories of all ecclesiasticall revenues and profits, was wont to reserve nothing for himselfe but two loves of bread only on the Lords day.

90. When as now the Romane Empire began to decline and decay, and barbarous Nations every way made foule havocke of the provinces all over the Continent, the British armies, fearing lest the flame of their neighbors fire might flash out and catch hold likewise of them, supposing also that they stood in need of some Generall and Soveraign commander to expell the Barbarians, addresed themselves to the election of Emperors. First, therefore, they enthronized in the roiall seat Marcus, and him they obeied, as one that in these parts bare the chief soveraignty. But afterward having made him away, because his cariage was not answerable unto theirs, they bring foorth and set up Gratian, a countryman of their owne: him they crowned and arraied in the regall purple, and him they dutifully attended upon as their Prince. Howbeit upon a mislike that they tooke to him also, at foure moneths end they deprive him of his Empire, take away his life, and made over the Soveraignty of State to one Constantine, a souldier of the meanest place, only because his name importes, as they thought, the osse [augury] of good luck. For they conceived assured hope that he, by the fortunate name of Constantine, would likewise constantly and fortunately govern the Empire and dispatch all enemies, like as that Constantine the Great had done, who in Britain was advanced to the Imperiall dignity. This Constantine putting to sea from Britain, landed at Bologne in France, and easily induced withal the Romane forces as far as to the Alpes to join with him in his war. Valentia in France he manfully defended against the puissance of Honorius Augustus the Roman Emperor: the Rhene, which long before had been neglected, he fortified with a garison: upon the Alpes, a well Cottiae and Peninae as those toward the maritime coasts, where ever there was any passage, he built fortresses. In Spaine, under the leading and name of his sonne Constans, whom of a Monk he had denounced [appointed] Augustus or Emperor, he warred with fortunate successe; and afterwards by letters sent unto Honorius, requesting to bee held excused for suffering the purple forcibly to be done upon him by the souldiers, received his hands of free gift the Imperiall robe. Whereupon he became prouder than before, and after he had passed over the Alpes intended to march directly to Rome: but hearing that Alaricus the King of the Goths (who had sided with him) was dead, he retired himselfe to Arles, where he planted his Imperiall seat, commanded the Citie to be called Constantina, and ordained therein, that the assembles for Assizes of 7 provinces should be held. His sonne Constans he sendeth for out of Spaine, to the end that meeting together they might consult as touching the State. Who leaving the furniture of his Court and his wife at Caesar Augusta, and committing the charge of all matters within Spaine to Gerontius, came speedily without intermission of journey to his father. When they had met together, after many daies, Constantinus, seeing no feare of any danger from Italy, gave himselfe wholly to gluttony and belli-cheere, and so adviseth his sonne to return into Spaine. But when he had sent his forces to march before, whiles he abode still with this father, newes came out of Spaine, that Maximus one of his vassals and followers was by Gerontius set up and advanced to the Empire; and having about him a strong power and retinue of barbarous nations, prepared to come against them. Whereat they being affrighted, Constans and Decimus Rusticus, who of the Master of Offices was now become the Prefect, having dispatched Edobeccus before unto the Germane nations, together with the Frankners, Almans and all the militarie forces, went into France, intending out of hand to returne unto Constantinus. But as for Constans, Gerontius intercepted him by the way at Vienne in France, and killed him: Constantine himselfe he besieged within Arles: to raise this siege and to assaile him in hostile maner. When one Constantius sent from Honorius made haste with any army, Gerontius fearefully fled: whereupon his souldiers for anger and indignation beset his house round about, and drave him to those hard streits, that first he cut off Alanus his most trusty friends head, then he laid violent hands upon Nunnichia the said Alanus wife, who earnestly desired to die with her husband, and last of all perished himselfe. Constantinus being very straitly shut up, and withal utterly dejected and cast down with the unfortunate fight of Evdobeccus, after he had been beleaguered foure moneths, and raigned likewise 4 yeres, laid away his purple habite, entred into a Church, and took the orders of priesthood, and soon after, having surrendred Arles, was led captive into Italie, and there beheaded, together with a sonne of his, whom he had named Nobilissimus , and a brother called Sebastian. From that time returned Britaine, under the Empire of Honorius, and was refreshed a while, through the wisedome and prowesse of Victorinus, who then ruled the Province, and repressed the outroades of Picts and Scots. In commendation of whom, in Rutilius Claudius are these verses extant, answerable in worth to the Author:

The Ocean maine his vertues knowes, and Thule witnesse will,
And all the fertile fields likewise, that Britains fierce doe till.
Where ever Rulers power by turnes successive bridled is,
Of much good love continuall increase he doth not misse.
That part indeed divided was from all the world beside,
And yet as if in mids thereof it were, he did it guide.
The greatest prise and praise it is to seeke there for to please,
Where to controll lesse feare it were, lesse bashment [embarrassment] to displease.

91. When Rome was forced by Alaricus, Honorius called Victorinus home with his army: and forthwith the Britans took arms, and engaging themselves into danger for the safety of themselves, freed their owne cities and States from the barbarous people that waited all opportunities to annoy them. Sembably, that whole maritime tract of Armorica delivered themselves, casting out the Romane Presidents, and setting up a certain proper common-wealth at their owne pleasure. This revolt and rebellion of Britaine together with the French Provinces happened at the time that Constantine usurped the Kingdom, considering that the Barbarians, taking advantage of his negligence in government, boldly and without restraint overcame those Provinces. Howbeit within a while after, the States of Britain importuned Honorius for succor: whom he, without sending any at all, advised by his Letters to stand upon their owne guard, and look to themselves. The Britans upon the receit of Honorius Letters were stirred up, and put themselves in armes to defend their owne cities: but being not able to match the Barbarians that came upon them so on every side, they besought Honorius what they could, and obtained at his hands, that a Legion should bee sent to their rescue and succour. Which being come over hither, defeated and overthrew a great number of the enemies, chased the rest out of the marches of the Province, and took order for a wall or rampier of turfe to be made from the Firth of Edenburgh unto Cluid, which stood them in small or no stead. For by occasion that the said Legion was called backe to the defence of France, the barbarous enemies returne, breake downe with ease the frontier bounds, and in all kind of outrage and crueltie in every place carry, harrie and make havocke of all. Then were dispatched a second time in lamentable sort ambassadours, with their garments rent, and heads covered with sand (marke the maner of it) for to crave aid of the Romanes: unto whom, by the commandement of Valentinian the Third, were appointed certain regiments of souldiers, conducted by Gallio of Ravenna, which most valiantly vanquished the Barbarians, and in some sort gave comfort to the poore distressed and afflicted Province, They made a wall directly by a streight line, and that of stone (not as the other) at the publike charges of the State, and with private mens purses together, joyning with them the miserable inhabitants, after the wonted maner of building, to wit, traversing along the land from one Sea to another, betweene those cities which haply were placed there for feare of enemies. To the fearefull people they gave good instructions, and exhortations to play the men, and left unto them paternes, shewing them how to make armour and weapons. Upon the coast also of the Ocean, in the tract of the South countrey, what way they had ships (because even from that side also they stood in feare of those barbarous and savage beasts) they planted turrets and bulkwarks with convenient spaces distant one from another, yeelding farre and faire prospect unto the sea: and so the Romans gave them a finall farewell, never to returne againe.

92. Now was the State everie where in a most wofull and pitious plight to see unto: to see the Empire drooping with extreme age, lay along maimed, dismembred, and as it were benummed in all the limmes and parts thereof: the Church likewise most greevously assailed by Heretikes (who amid the burning broiles of warre, cast and spread their venome all abroad. Among whom Pelagius, borne in this Island, taught here, to the prejudice of Gods meere [perfect] grace, that we might atteine to perfect righteouslnesse by our owne works. One Timothie also impiously disputed among the Britans, against the divine and human nature both, in Christ.

93. Now also was the Romane Empire in Britaine come to her full and finall period, to wit, the four hundreth, seventie and sixth yeere after Caesars first entrie: what time, in the raigne of Valentinian the Third, the Romanes having transported their forces with the foresaid Gallio for the defence of France, and buried their treasure within the ground, left Britaine bereft of her youth, wasted with so many musters and levies, dispoiled of all succour and defence of garrison, unto the cruell rage of Picts and Scots. Hence it is that Prosper Aquitanus wrote thus, and that right truely, At this time, by reason of the Romans weaknesse, the strength of Britaine was utterly spent, and brought to naught. And our Historiographer of Malmsburie, When the Tyrant had left none in the countrey but halfe Barbarians, none in the cities and townes but such as wholly gave themselves to belly-cheere, Britaine destitute of all protection by her vigorous young men, bereaved of all exercise and practise of good arts, became exposed, for a long time, to the greedy and gaping jawes of Nations confining [bordering] upon her. For straightwaies, by the incursions of Scots and Picts, many a man was slaine, villages burnt, cities undermined and subverted, and thorowout all laid wast with fire and sword. The Ilanders in great trouble and perplexitie, thinking all other meanes safer than triall by battell, partly betooke them to their heeles, and for their safetie fled unto the mountaine-Countrey, partly, after they had buried their treasure within the ground, whereof much is digged up in these daies, purposed to goe to Rome for to crave aid. But as Nicephorus truely wrote, Valentinian the Third was not onely unable to recover Britaine, Spaine, and France, provinces plucked away from his Empire already, but also lost Africk beside. Not without just cause therefore Gildas in this age cried out thus: Britain was despoiled of all her armed men, her military forces, her Rulers (cruell though they were), and of a mightie number of her stout and couragious youths. For besides those whom that Usurper Maximus and the last Constantine led away with the them, it appeareth evidently by antike inscriptions, and the booke named Notitia Provinciarum , that these companies underwritten served the Romans in war, here and there dispersed over their Provinces, which also were from time to time evermore supplied out of Britain:

Ala Britannica milliaria
Ala IIII Britonum in Aegypto
Cohors Prima Aelia Britonum
Cohors III Britonum
Cohors VII Britonum
Cohors XXVI Britonum in Armenia
Britanniciani sub magistro peditum
Invicti iuniores Britanniciani inter auxilia Palatina
Excultores iun. Britan.inter auxilia Palatina
Britones cum magistro equitum Galliarum
Invicti iuniores Britones intra Hispanias
Britones seniores in illyrico

Hereupon, no marvell it is if Britaine, exhausted daily with so many and so great levies of souldiers, lay exposed unto the Barbarians, and hereby prooveth that sentence of Tacitus true, There is no strength in the Romane armies, but it is of forraine strangers.

94. In writing of these matters concerning the Romanes government in Britaine, which continued (as I said) CCCCLXXVI yeeres, or much thereabout, whiles I consider and thinke otherwise [sometimes] with my selfe, how many Colonies of Romans were in so long a time brought hither, how many souldiers continually transported over hither from Rome to lie in garrison, how many sent hither to negotiate either their own busines, or the affaires of the Empire, who joyning in mariage with Britans, both planted themselves, and also begat children here (for wheresoever the Romans winneth , saith Seneca, there he woneth, and inhabiteth ), I enter of times into this cogitation, that Britans may more truley ingresse [engraft] themselves into the Trojanes stocke by these Romanes, who are descended from Trojans, than either the Averni, who drawing their descent from Ilian bloud, have named themselves the Romans brethren; or the Marmertines, Hedui, and the rest, who grounding upon a fabulous originall, have fathered themselves upon the Trojans. For, Rome, that common Mother (as he saith), called those her Citizens,

Whom she subdued, and by a gratious knot
United people farre dissite [distant] and remote.

And meet it is we should beleeve, that the Britans and Romans in so many ages, by a blessed and joyfull mutuall ingraffing, as it were, have growen into one stocke and nation: seeing that the Ubii in Germanie within 28 yeeres after that a Colonie was planted, where now Colein is, made answere as touching the Roman Inhabitants there, in this wise: this is the naturall Countrey, as well to those that being conveied hither in times past, are conjoyned with us by mariages, as to their off-spring. Neither can we thinke you so unreasonable, as to wish us for to kill our parents, brethren, and children. If the Ubii and Romans in so small a time became parents, brethren, and children one to another, what should we judge of Britans and Romans linked and conjoyned for many yeeres together? What also may we say of the Burgundians, who for that they mingled their bloud with the Romans, whiles they held for a small time the Romans Provinces, called themselves a Roman off-spring, not to rehearse againe what I have said before, that this Island hath beene named Romania and Insula Romana , that is, The Roman Isle?

95. Thus much have I set downe summarily, and in compendious maner gathered out of the ancient monuments of Antiquitie, rejecting all fabulous fictions, as touching the Romans Regiment [government] in Britaine, their Lieutenants, Propretours, Presidents, Vicars, and Rectors. But more exactly and fully might I have done it, if Ausonius had performed his promise, and that come unto our hands: who said he would reckon up such as,

That ruled Nations Italike, and North-bred Britans all,
Entituled with happy stile Lieutenants Generall.

But, seeing it is agreed upon among all learned men, that there ariseth very much light to the illustration of ancient Histories out of ancient Coines, I have thought good in this place to exhibite unto the Reader certain peeces of money, as well of those Britans who first came under subjection of the Romanes, as of Roman Emperours: such especially as appertaine to Britaine, and those out of the Cabinet of the right Worshipfull Sir Robert Cotton of Conington, Knight, who hath from all places with curious and chargeable search gotten them together, and of his courtesie with heart and goodwill, imparted the same unto me.

William Camden, Britain, or, a Chorographicall Description of the most flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland (London: George Bishop and John Norton, 1610) Copyright 2004 by Dana F. Sutton. This text was transcribed by Professor Sutton, of the University of California, Irvine, from Philemon Holland's 1610 translation [British Library Short Title Catalogue 4509, Early English Books reel 911:1]. For a full critical edition presenting Camden's original Latin text in parallel with Holland's translation, visit Professor Sutton's site at:


Placename mark-up by Humphrey Southall.

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