Picture of William Camden

William Camden

places mentioned

Scotland: South of the Antonine Wall

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NOW I am come to Scotland, and willingly, I assure you, will I enter into it, but withall lightly passe over it. For I remember well that said saw, In places not wel knowne, lesse while we must stay , as also the admonition of that Grecian, ????? ?? ???????? ????, that is, Art thou a stranger? Be no Medler. And verily I should play an unadvised part if I would insist long in that wherein I am but little conversant. But yet, seeing Scotland also joieth in the name of Britaine, let it be lawfull for me (reserving the due honour to the Scotish) according to my purpose, having boldly undertaken to illustrate Britan, to proceed with their good favour, leave and license, and by withdrawing aside in some sort the curtaine of obscure antiquity, to point out with my finger, if I shalbe able, some places of ancient note and memorie. Certes, I assure my selfe that I shall bee easily pardoned in this point, the people them selves are so courtuous and well meaning, and the happinesse of these daies so rare and admirable, since that by a divine and heavenly opportunity it is now fallen into our laps, which wee hardly ever hoped, and our Ancestours so often and so earnestly wished: namely, that Britaine, for so many ages disjoigned [disjointed] in it selfe and unsociable, should all throughout like one uniforme City, under one most sacred and happie Monarch, the founder of perpetuall peace, by a blessed Union bee conjoyned in one entire bodie. Who beeing through the propitious goodnesse of Almighty God elected, borne, and preserved to the good of both nations, as hee is a Prince of singular wisedome and providence, and, fatherly affected to all his subjects, doth so cut off all causes and occasions of feare, of hope, of revenge, complaint, and quarell, that the dismale Discord which hath set these nations (otherwise invincible) so long at debate might be stifled and crushed for ever, and sweet Concord triumph joyously with endlesse comfort, when (as one sometime sung this tenour), iam cuncti gens una sumus , that is, Wee all one nation are this day , whereunto as a Chorus both nations resound, et simus in aevum , that is, God grant wee may so bee for aye.

2. But before my penne commeth to Scotland, thus much I thinke it good to advertise the reader aforehand, that I leave the first originall of the Scottish nation to their owne Historians; also the primitive derivation of their name to the learned among them, banishing al conjectures whatsoever of others, which either hasty credulity or carelesse negligence hath forged, as well in the late foregoing age as in these our daies. and according to the same order which I kept before in England, I will premise some few lines touching the Division of Scotland, the States of the Kingdome, and the Tribunalls or Courts of Justice; then will I breifly touch the situations and Commodities of the soile in every severall Region: what places there bee of greater fame and name, and what families, more notable and noble than the rest, have most flourished with the title and honour of Earles and Barons of the Parliament, so farre forth as hitherto I could finde by reading or enquiry. And that so circumspectly with such an honest desire and sincere affection to truth, that I hope I shal not give offence to the malicious, and with so compendious brevity that I will not prevent their curious diligence, who are in hand to set out these matters with a fuller pensill, and to polish the same with more lively and lasting collours.


THE North part of the Iland of Britaine was of old time inhabited throughout by the Picts, who were divided into two Nations, the Dicalidonii and Vecturiones, of whom I have spoken alreadie out of Ammianus Marcellinus. But when the Scots became Lords and Rulers over all this part, it was shared into seven partes among seven Princes, as wee find in a little ancient pamphlet touching the Division of Scotland, in these words and old names:

The first part conteined Enegus and Maern.
The second Atheodl and Goverin.
The third Stradhern with Meneted.
The fourth was Forthever.
The fift, Mar with Buchen.
The sixth, Muref and Ros.
The seaventh Cathanes, which Mound, a mountaine in
the midest divideth, running on forward from the
West sea to the East.

2. Then afterwardes the same author reporteth, according to the relation of Andrew Bishop of Cathanes, that the whole kingdome was divided likewise into seaven territories:

The first from Frith in the British tongue, called by the
Romans World, and now Scotwade, to the river Tae.
The second to Hilef, according as the sea fetcheth a
compasse, to a mountaine in the North-east part of
Strivelin named Athran.
The third from Hilef to Dee.
The fourth from Dee to the river Spe.
The fifth from Spe to the mountaine Brunalban.
The sixth Mures and Ros,
The seventh, the kingdom of Argathel, as it were the
border and skirt of the Scots. Who were so called of
Gathelgas their captaine.

3. Also, according to the habitation of the people, Scotland is now divided into Highlandmen and Lawlend-men. These, being more civil, use the English language and apparaill: the other, which are rude and unruly, speake Irish and go apparailed Irishlike, as I have already said. Out of this division I exclude the Borderers, because by reason of peace shining now upon them on every side, by a blessed and happy Union they are to bee ranged and reckoned in the very heart and midest of the British Empire, as who beginne to bee weary of warres and to acquaint them selves with the delightfull benefits of peace.

4. Moreover, according to the situation and position of the places the whole kingdome is divided into two partes, the South on this side the river Tay, and the North beyond Tay, besides a number of Islands lying round about. In the South part these countries are more remarkeable than the rest:

Teifidale Arran
Merch Cluydesdale
Lauden Lennox
Liddesdale Stirling
Eskedale Fife
Annandale Strathern
Niddesdale Menteith
Galloway Argile
Carrick Cantire
Kyle Lorn

In the North part are reckoned these Countries:

Loquabrea Buquhan
Braidalbin Murray
Perth Rosse
Athol Sutherland
Anguish Cathanes
Mern Strathnavern

5. These are subdivided againe according to their civill government into counties, which they cal Shiriffdomes, Seneschalsies, commonly Stewarties, and Baliwickes or Bailleries:

Edenburgh Clackmannan
Lynlthquo Kinros
Selkirk Fife
Roxburgh Kincardin
Peblis Forfair
Berwick Aberdene
Lanark Bamff
Renfrew Elgin
Dunfreis Forres
Wighton Narne
Aire Innerness
Bute Lorn
Argyle & Tarbet Cromartie
Dunbarton Orknay and
Perth Shetland

Seneschalsies or Stewarties:

Menteith Kircudbricht
Strathern Annandall

Bailywickes or Baileries

Kile Carick
Cunningham Haddington, a

6. As touching the administration of that divine citie and commonwealth which we terme the Church, like as the Bishops in all the world beside had no certaine dioeceses before that Dionisius Bishop of Rome about the yeere 268 did set out dioeceses for Bishops, so the Bishops of Scotland executed their Episcopall functions in what place soever they came, indifferently and without distinction, untill the time of King Malcolme the Third, that is, about the yeere of our redemption 1070, at which time the dioeceses were confined within their bounds and limits. Afterwards, in processe of time this Hierarchie or Ecclesiasticall government was established in Scotland. Two Archbishops, one of Saint Andrews, the other of Glasco, whereof the former is counted Primate of all Scotland. Under whom there be eight Bishoprickes:

Dunkeld Brechin
Aberdon Rosse
Murray Cathanes
Dunblan Orkney

Under the Archbishop of Glasco there be onely three:

Candidae Casae or Galloway  
Lismoriensis or Argile  
The Iles  


THE Republicke or Common-wealth of the Scots, like as that of the Englishmen, consisteth of a King, the Nobility or Gentry, and Commons.

The King, that I may use the words of their owne Records, is directus totius dominus , that is, The Direct Lord of the whole Domaine or Dominion , and hath roiall authority and jurisdiction over all the States and degrees, as well Ecclesiasticall as Lay or Temporall.

Next unto the King is his eldest sonne, who is called Prince of Scotland, and by a peculiar right, Duke of Rothsay and Seneschall or Steward of Scotland. But all the rest of the Kings children are named simply Princes.

2. Among the Nobles, the greatest and most honorable were in old time the Thanes, that is, those who (if my judgement be ought) were ennobled onely by the office which they administred. For the word in the ancient English Saxon tongue signifieth The Kings Minister. Of these, they of the superior place were called Abthans, the inferior, Under Thanes. But these names by little and little grew out of use, ever since that King Malcolm the Third conferred the titles of Earles and Barons, after the maner receaved from the English, upon Noble men of good desert. Since when, in processe of time, new titles of honors were much taken up, and Scotland as wel as England hath had Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, Vicounts and Barons. As for the title of Duke, the first that brought it into Scotland was King Robert the Third about the yeere of Salvation 1400, like as the Honorable titles of Marquesse and Vicount were first brought in by our most gracious Soveraigne King James the Sixth. These are counted Nobles of the higher degree, and have both place and voice in the Parliaments, and by a speciall name are called Lords, like as also the Bishops.

3. Among the Nobles of a lower degree, in the first place are ranged Knights, who verily are doubbed with greater solemnity than in any other place throughout all Europe, by taking of an oth, and are proclaimed by the publicke voice of an Heralt. Of a second sort are they who are tearmed Lairds and Barons, among whom none were reckoned in old time but such as held immediatly from the King lands in Chef and had ius furcarum , that is, powre to hang &. In the third place are all such as being descended from worshipfull houses, and not signall with any especiall dignitie, be tearmed Gentlemen. All the rest, as Citizens, Merchants, Artisans, &., are reputed among the Commons.


THE supreme Court, as well for dignity as authority, is accounted the Assembly of the States of the Kingdome, which is called by the very same name as it in is in England, a Parliament, and hath the very same power as absolute. It consisteth of three States, of Lords Spirituall, namely Bishops, Abbots, and Priors, and of Lords Temporall, to wit Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, Vicounts, and Barons, and Commissioners for Cities and Burghs. Unto whom were adjoined not long since for every County also two commissioners. It is appointed and solemnly called by the King at his pleasure, at a certaine set time, before it bee holden. When these States abovesaid are assembled, and the causes of their assembly delivered by the King or the Chancellour, the Lords Spirituall choose out apart by themselves eight of the Lords Temporall. Sembably the Lords Temporall make choise of as many out of the Lords Spirituall. Then the same all jointly together nominate eight of the Commissioners for the Counties, and as many of the Commissioners for the free Bouroughs regall, which make up in all the number of 32. And then these Lords of the Articles (so they are termed) together with the Chancellor, Treasurer, Keeper of the Privy Seale, Kings Secretarie &. doe admit or reject everie bill proposed unto the States, after they have beene first imparted unto the KIng. Being allowed by the whole assembly of the States, they are throughly weighed and examined, and such of them as passe by the greater number of voices are exhibited unto the King, who by touching them with his Scepter pronounceth that he either ratifieth and approveth them, or disableth and maketh the same void. But if any thing disliketh the King, it is rased [erased] out before.

2. The Second Court, or next unto the Parliament, is the Colledge of Justice, or as they call it, The Session, which King James the Fifth 1532 instituted after the forme of the Parliament of Paris, consisting of a President, 14 Senatours, seven of the Cleargie, and as many of the Laity (unto whom was adjoined afterward the Chancellor, who hath the chiefe place, and five other Senatours), three principall Scribes or Clerkes, and as many Advocates as the Senatours shall thinke good. These sit and minister Justice, not according to the rigor of law, but with reason and equity, every day (save onely on the Lords day and Monday) from the first of November to the fifteenth of March, and from Trinity Sunday unto the first Calends of August. All the space betweene, as being the times of sowing and harvest, is vacation and intermission of all suits and law matters. They give judgement according to the Parliament Statuts and Municipall lawes, and where they are defective, they have recourse to the Imperiall civill law.

3. There are besides in every Country inferior civill Judicatories or Courts kept, wherein the Sheriffe of the shire, or his deputy, decideth the controversies of the inhabitants about violent Ejections, intrusions, dammages, debts &. From which Courts and judges, in regard of hard and unequall dealing, or else of alliance and partiality, they appeale sometime to the Session. These Sheriffes are all for the most part hereditary. For the Kings of Scots, like as of England also, to oblige more surely unto them the better sort of Gentlemen by their benefits and favours, made in old time these Sheriffes heritable and perpetuall. But the English Kings, soone perceiving the inconveniences thereby ensuing, of purpose changed this order and appointed them from yeere to yeere. There be civill Courts also in every regality, holden by their Bailives, to whom the Kings have graciously granted roialties, as also in free Borroughs, by the Magistrates thereof.

There are likewise Judicatories, which they call Commissariats, the highest whereof is kept at Edenburgh, in which, before foure Judges, actions are pleaded concerning Willes and Testaments, the right of Ecclesiasticall benefices, Tithes, Divorces, and such other Ecclesiasticall causes. In every other severall part almost throughout the Kingdome, there sitteth but one judge alone in a place about these matters.

4. In Criminall causes the Kings chiefe Justice holdeth his Court for the most part at Edenburgh (which office the Earles of Argile have executed now for some yeeres). And he doth depute two or three Lawyers who have the hearing and deciding of Capitall actions concerning life and death, or of such as inferre losse of lims or of all goods. In this Court the Defendant is permitted, yea in case of high treason, to entertaine a Counsellor or advocate to pleade his cause.

Moreover, in Criminall matters there are sometimes, by vertue of the Kings commission and authority, Justices appointed for the deciding of this or that particular cause.

5. Also, the Sheriffes in their territories, and Magistrates in some Burghs, may sit in judgement of Manslaughter (in case the man-sleere be taken within 24 houres after the deede committed), and, being found guilty by a Jury, put him to death. But if that time be once overpast, the cause is referred and put over to the Kings Justice or his Deputies. The same priviledge also some of the Nobility and gentry enjoy against theeves taken within their owne jurisdictions. There be likewise that have such Roialties as that in Criminall causes they may exercise a jurisdiction within their owne limits, and in some cases recall those that dwell within their owne limits and liberties from the Kings Justice, howbeit with a caution and proviso interposed, that they judge according to Law.

Thus much briefly have I put downe, as one that hath but sleightly looked into these matters, yet by the information of the judicious Knight Sir Alexander Hay, his Majesties Secretarie for that Kingdome, who hath therein given me good light. But as touching Scotland, what a noble Country it is, and what men it breedeth (as sometimes the Geographer wrote of Britaine) there will within a while more certaine and more evident matter be delivered, since that most high and mighty Prince hath set it open now for us, which had so long time beene shut from us. Meane while I will come unto the description of Places, the project that I intended especially.


UPON the Ottadini or Northumberland, bordered as next neighbours, the ???????, that is, Gadeni, who also by the inversion or turning of one letter upside downe are called in some Copies of Ptolomee Ladeni, seated in that country which lieth betweene the mouth of the river Twede and Edenburgh Frith, and is at this day divided into many pety countries: the chiefe whereof are Teifidale, Twedale, Merch, and Lothien, in Latine Lodeneium, under which one generall name alone the writers of the middle time comprised all the rest.


TEFIDALE, that is to say the Vale by the river Tefie or Teviat , lying next unto England among the edges of high craggy hilles, is inhabited by a warlicke nation, which by reason of so many encounters in foregoing ages betweene Scotish and English are alwaies most ready for service and sudden invasions. The first place among these that we meete with is Jedburgh, a Bourrough well inhabited and frequented, standing neere unto the confluence of Teifie and Jed, whereof it tooke the name. Also Mailros, a very ancient Monastery, wherein at the beginning of our Church were cloistered Monkes of that ancient order and institution that gave themselves to praier, and with their hand labour earned there living: which holy King David restored and replenished with Cistertian Monkes. And more Eastward, where Twede and Teifie joine in one stream, Rosburg sheweth it selfe, called also Roxburg, and in old time Marchidun, because it was a towne in the Marches, where stands a Castle that for naturall situation and towrd fortifications was in times past exceeding strong. Which beeing surprised and held by the English, while James the Second King of Scots encircled it with a siege, hee was by a peece of a great ordinance that brake slaine untimely in the very floure of his youth, a Prince much missed and lamented of his subjects. As for the castle, it was yeelded, and beeing then for the most part of it laied even with the ground, is now in manner quite vanished and not to bee seene. The Territory adjoyning, called of it the Sherifdom of Roxburgh, hath one hereditarie Sheriffe, out of the familie of the Douglasses, who is usually called the Sherif of Treviot Dale. And now hath Roxburg also a Baron, Robert Kerr, through the favour of King James the Sixth, out of the family of the Kerrs, a famous house and spred into a number of branches as any one in that tract, out of which the Fernhersts and others inured in martiall feats have beene of great name.

2. Twede aforesaid runneth through the middest of a Dale taking name of it, replenished with sheepe that beare wooll of great request. A very goodly river this is, which, springing more inwardly Eastward, after it hath passed, as it were, in a streight chanell by Drimlar Castle, by Peblis a mercate towne which hath for the Sherif thereof Baron Zester, like as Selkirk hard by hath another out of the familie of Murray of Fallohill, enterteineth Lauder a riveret, at which appeereth Lauder, together with Thirlestan; where stands a very faire house of Sir John Mettellan late Chancellor of Scotland, who for his singular wisdome King James the Sixth created Baron of Thirlestan. Then Twede beneath Roxburg, augmented with the river of Teviot resorting unto him, watereth the Sherifdom of Berwick throughout, a great part whereof is possessed by the Humes (wherein the cheife man of that familie exerciseth now the jurisdiction of a Sherif), and so passeth under Berwick the strongest towne of Britain (whereof I have spoken already), where he is exceeding ful of Salmons, and so disembogeth [discharges] it selfe into the sea.


MERCH, which is next, and so named because it is a march country, lieth wholy upon the German sea. In this, first Hume Castle sheweth it selfe, the ancient possession of the Lords of Home or Hume, who, beeing descended from the familie of the Earles of Merch, are growne to be a noble and faire spred familie: out of which Alexander Hume, who before was the first Baron of Scotland Sherif of Berwick, was of late advanced by James King of Great Britaine to the title of Earle Hume. Neere unto which lieth Kelso, famous sometime for the monastery which, with thirteene others, King David the First of that name built out of the ground for the propagation of Gods glory, but to the great empairing of the crowne land.

2. Then is to be seene Coldingham, which Bede calleth the City Coldana and the city of Coludum, happily Colania mentioned by Ptolomee, a place consecrated many ages since unto professed Virgins or Nunnes, whose chastity is recorded in ancient bookes. For that they together with Ebba their prioresse cut off their owne noses and lips, choosing rather to preserve their virginity from the Danes than their beauty and favour, and yet for all that, the Danes burnt their monasterie and them withall. Hard by is Fast-castle, a castle of the Lords Humes, so called for their firmenesse and strength thereof, at the Promontorie of the said Saint Ebbe, who, beeing the daughter of Edilfrid King of Northumberland, when her father was taken prisoner, got hold of a boat in Humber and, passing along the raging Ocean, landed heere in safty, became renowned for her sanctimonie and left her name unto the place. But this Merch is mentioned in the Historiographers a great deale more for the Earles thereof than for any places therein: who for martiall proesse were highly renowned, and descended from Gospatricke Earle of Northumberland, whom after he was fled from William Conqueror of England, Malcolm Canmore, that is, With the great Head , King of Scotland, entertained, enriched him with the castle of Dunbar, and honored with the Earldome of Merch. Whose posterity, besids other goodly and faire lands in Scotland, held (as appeereth plainly in an old Inquisition) the Baronie of Bengeley in Northumberland, that they should be Inborrow and Utborrow betweene England and Scotland. What the meaning should be of these tearmes let others guesse; what my conjecture is I have said already. In the reigne of King James the First, George de Dunbar Earle of Merch, by authority of Parliament, for his fathers rebellion lost the Propriety and possession both of the Earldome of Merch and the Seignorie of Dunbar. And whenas he proved by good evidences and writings brought forth that his father had beene pardoned for that fault by the Regents of the Kingdome, he was answred againe that it was not in the Regents powre to pardon an offence against the State, and that it was expressely provided by the lawes that children should undergoe punishment for their fathers transgressions, to the end that, being thus heires to their fathers rashnes, as they are to their goods and lands, they should not at any time in the haughty pride of their owne powre plot any treason against Prince or country. This title of Earle of March, among other honorable titles, was given afterward to Alexander Duke of Albanie, and by him forfaited. And in our remembrance this title of honor was revived againe in Robert, the third brother of Matthew Earle of Lennox, who being a Bishop of Caithanes made Earle of Lennox, resigned up that title soone after unto his nephew, then created Duke of Lennox, and he himself in lieu thereof received of the King the name and stile of the Earle of Merch.


LOTHIEN, which is also called Lauden, named in times past of the Picts Pictland, shooteth out along from Merch unto the Scottish sea, or the Forth, having many hille sin it and little wood, but for fruitfull cornfields, for courtesie also and civility of manners commended above all other countries of Scotland. About the yeere of our salvation 873 Eadgar King of England (betweene whom and Kenneth the Third, King of Scots, there was a great knot of alliance against the Danes, common enimies to them both) resigned up his right unto him in this Lothien, as Matthew the Flour-gatherer witnesseth, and to winne his heart the more unto him, He gave unto him many mansions in the way, wherein both he and his successours in their comming unto the Kings of England and in returne homeward might be lodged, which unto the time of King Henrie the Second continued in the hands of the King of Scotland. In this Lothien, the first place that offereth it selfe unto our sight upon the sea side is Dunbar, a passing strong castle in old time,and the seat of the Earles of Merch aforesaid, who thereupon were called Earles of Dunbar: a Peece many a time wonne by English, and as often recovered by the Scotish. But in the yeere 1567, by authority of the States in Parliament, it was demolished, because it should not be an hold and place of refuge for rebels. But James King of Great Britaine conferred the title and honor of Earle of Dunbar upon Sir George Hume for his approved fidelity, whom he had created before Baron Hume of Barwicke, to him, his heires, and Assignes . Hard by, Tine a little river, after it hath runne a short race, falleth into the sea, neere unto the spring-head whereof standeth Zeister, which hath his Baron out of the family of the Haies Earles of Aroll, who also is by inheritance Sherife of the little territorie of Twedall or Peblis. By the same riveret, some few miles higher, is seated Hadington or Hadina in a wide and broad plaine: which towne the English fortified with a deepe and large ditch, with a mure or rampier also without, foure square, and with foure bulwarks at the corners, and with as many other at the inner wall, and Sir James Wilford an English man valiantly defended it against Dessie the Frenchman, who with tenne thousand French and Dutch together fiercely assaulted it, untill that by reason of the plague, which grew hote among the garison-souldiers, Henrie Earle of Rutland comming with a roiall armie raised the siege, removed the French, and having laid the munitions levell, conducted the English home. And now of late King James the Sixth hath ranged Sir John Ramsey among the Nobles of Scotland, with title and honour of Vicount Hadington, for his faithfull valour, as whose RIGHT HAND was the DEFENDER OF PRINCE AND COUNTRY in that most wicked conspiracie of the Gourees against the Kings person. Touching this Hadington, thus hath Maister John Jonston versified:

Before it lies a spatious plaine, the Tine his streame hard by,
In bosome of that river shrill this towne enclos'd doth lie.
Which, having suffered grievous smart of fire and sword by turnes,
Grones under these misfortunes much, and for her losses mournes.
But now at length self-harmes have made it wise, and by Gods lore
Directed, helpe it hath from heaven, which steedeth it much more

Within a little of Hadington standeth Athenstanford, so called of Athelstane a chiefe leader of the English, slaine there with his men about the yeere 815. But that he should be that warlicke Athelstane which was King of the West-Saxons, both the account of the times and his owne death doe manifestly controule [controvert] it.

2. Above the mouth of this Tine, in the very bending of the shore, standeth Tantallon Castle, from which Archibald Douglasse Earle of Angus wrought James the Fifth, King of Scots, much teen and trouble. Heere by retyring backe of the shores on both sides is roome made for a most noble arme of the sea, and the same well furnished with Ilands, which by reason of many rivers encountring it by the way, and the tides of the surging sea together, spreadeth exceeding broad. Ptolomee calleth it Boderia, Tacitus Bodotria, of the depth, as I guesse, the Scots, the Forth and Frith, we, Edinburgh Frith, others, the Fresian sea and the Scotish Sea, and the Eulogium , Morwiridh. Upon this, after you be past Tantallon, are seated, first, North-Berwicke, a famous place sometime for an house there of religious Virgins, and then Dyrlton, which belonged in times past to the notable family of the Haliburtons, and now to Sir Thomas Ereskin Captain of the gard, whom James King of Great Britain for his happy valour in preserving him against the traiterous attempts of Gowrye first created Baron of Dirlton, and afterward advanced him to the honorable title of Vicount Felton, making him the first Vicount that ever was in Scotland. Against these places there lieth in the sea, not farre from the shore, the Iland Bas, which riseth up, as it were, all one craggy rocke, and the same upright and steep on every side; yet hath it a Blockhouse belonging to it, a fountaine also and pastures, but it is so holowed with the waves working upon it that it is almost pierced through. What a multitude of sea foules, and especially of those geese which they call Scoutes and Soland geese, flock hither at their times (for by report their number is such that in a cleere day they take away the sunnes light), what a sort of fishes they brIng (for, as the speech goeth, a hundred garizon souldiours that here lay for defense of the place fed upon no other meat but the fresh fish that they brought in), what a quantity of stickes and little twigges they get togither for the building of their nests, so that by their means the inhabitants are abundantly provided of fewell for their fire, what a mighty gaine groweth by their fethers and oyle, the report thereof is so incredible that no man scarcely would beleeve it but that he had seene it.

3. Then, as the shore draweth backe, Seton sheweth it selfe: which seemeth to have taken that name of the situation by the sea side, and to have imparted the same unto a right noble house of the Setons branched out of an English family, and from the daughter of King Robert Brus; out of which the Marquesse Huntley, Robert Earle of Wentoun, Alexander Earle of Dunfirmling, advanced to honors by King James the Sixth, are propagated.

After this, the river Eske dischargeth it selfe into this Frith when it hath runne by Borthwic (which hath Barons surnamed according to that name, and those deriving their pedigree out of Hungarie) by Newbottle, that is, The new building , sometimes a faire monasterie, now the Baronie of Sir Marke Ker; by Dalkeith, a very pleasant habitation of the late Earles of Morton; and Musselborow hard by, under which in the yeere of our Lord 1547, when Sir Edward Seimor Duke of Somerset, with an armie roiall had entred Scotland to claime and chaleng the keeping of a covenant made concerning a marriage betweene Marie Queene of Scotland and Edward the Sixth King of England, there hapned the heaviest day that ever fell to the adventurous youth of the most noble families in all Scotland, who there lost their lives. Here I must not overpasse in silence this inscription, which John Napier, a learned man, hath in this Commentaries upon the Apocalyps recorded to have beene heere digged up, and which the right learned knight Sir Peter Young, teacher and trainer to King James the Sixth in his youth, hath in this wise more truely copied forth:

V. SS. L. V. M.

Who this Apollo Grannus might bee, and whence hee should have this name, no one to my knowledge of our grave Senate of Antiquaries hitherto could ever tell. But if I might bee allowed from out of the lowest bench to speake what I thinke, I would say that Apollo Granus amongst the Romans was the same that ??????? ???????????, that is, Apollo with long haire amongst the Greeks; for Isidor calleth the long haire of the Gothes grannos. But here I may seeme to wander out of my way, and therefore will returne to it.

4. Lower yet, and neere unto the Scotish Forth, is seated Edenburough, which the Irish Scots call Dun Eaden , that is, The towne Eaden, or Eden Hill , and which, no doubt, is the very same that Ptolomee named ??????????? ????????, that is, The Winged Castle . For adain in the British tongue signifieth a wing , and Edenborrow (a word compounded out of the British and Saxon language) is nothing else but The Burgh with wings. From Wings therefore wee must fetch the reason of the name, and fetched it may be, if you thinke good, either from the Companies of Horsemen, which are called Wings, or else from those Wings in Architecture, which the great Master builders terme pteromata , that is, as Vitruvius sheweth, two Walles so rising up in height as that they resemble a shew of Wings. Which for that a certaine City of Cyprus wanted, it was called in old time (as wee read in the Geographers) Aptera, that is, Without Wings. But if any man beleeve that the name was derived from Ebrauk a Britaine, or from Heth a Pict, good leave hath he for me, I will not confront them with this my conjecture. This City in regard of the high situation, of the holsome aire and plentifull soile, and many Noble mens towred houses built round about it, watered also with cleere springing fountaines, reaching from East to West a mile out in length, and carrying halfe as much in bredth, is worthily counted the cheife citie of the whole Kingdome; strongly walled, adourned with houses as well publike as private, well peopled and frequented by reason of the opportunity from the sea which the neighbour haven at Leith affourdeth. And as it is the seat of the Kings, so it is the oracle also or closet of the Lawes, and the very Pallace of Justice. For the high Courts of Parliament are heere for the most part holden for the enacting or repealing of lawes; also the Session, and the Court of the Kings Justice, and of the Commissariat, whereof I have spoken already, are here settled and kept. On the East side, hard unto the Monasterie of Saint Crosse or Holy Ruide, is the Kings palace, which King David the First built. Over which, within a parke stored with game, riseth an hill with two heads, called of Arthur the Britaine Arthurs Chaire. On the West side, a most steepe rocke mounteth up aloft to a stately height every way, save onely where it looketh toward the City: on which is placed a Castle with many a towre in it, so strong that it is counted imprenalbe [impregnable], which the Britans called Castle Myned Agned , the Scots, the Maidens Castle and the Virgins Castle, of certaine young maidens of the Picts roiall bloud who were kept there in old time, and which may seeme in truth to be that Castrum Alatum or Castle with a Wing abovesaid.

5. How Edenborrow in the alternative fortune of warres was subject one while to the Scots, and another while to the English, who inhabited this East part of Scotland untill it became wholy under the Scots dominion about the yeere of our salvation 960, what time the English Empire, sore shaken with the Danish wars, lay, as it were, gasping and dying. How also, as an old booke Of the division of Scotland in the librarie of the right honourable Lord Burghleie, late high Treasurer of England, sheweth, Whiles Indulph reigned the towne of Eden was voided and abandoned to the Scots unto this present day , as what variable changes of reciprocall fortune it hath felt from time to time, the Historiographers doe relate, and out of them yee are to bee enformed. Meanwhile, read if you please these verses of that most worthy man Maister John Jonston in praise of Edenborrow:

Under the rising of an Hill, Westward there shootes one way
A castle high; on th' other side, the Kings house gorgeous gay.
Betweene them both the city stands, tall buildings shew it well,
For arms, for courage much renown'd, much people therein dwell.
The Scots head city large and faire, the kingdomes greatest part,
Nay, even the Nations kingdome whole well neere, by just desart.
Rare arts and riches: what ones minde can wish is therein found,
Or else it will not gotten be throughout all Scottish ground.
A civill people here a man may see, a Senate grave,
Gods holy lawes with purest light of preachers here yee have.
In parts remote of Northren clime would any person weene
That ever these or suchlike things might possibly be seene?
Say, Travailer, now after that thou forraine towne hast knowne,
Beholding this, beleevest thou these eies that are thine owne?

6. A mile from hence lieth Leth, a most commodious haven, hard upon the river Leth, which when Dessey the Frenchman for the security of Edenburrow had fortified, by reason of many men repairing thither, within a short time from a meane village it grew to bee a bigge towne. Againe, when Francis the Second King of France had taken to wife Marie Queene of Scots, the French men who in hope and conceit had already devoured Scotland, and beganne now to gape for England, in the yeere 1560 strengthened it with more fortifications. But Elizabeth Queene of England, sollicited by the Nobles of Scotland that embraced the reformed religion, to side with them, by her puissance and wisdome effected that both they returned into France, and these their fortifications were laied levell with the ground, and Scotland ever since hath beene freed of the French. Where this Forth groweth more and more narrow, it had in the midest of it the citie Caer-Guidi , as Bede noteth, which now may seeme to be the Island named Inch-Keith. Whether this were that Victoria which Ptolomee mentioneth I will not stand to proove, although a man may beleeve that the Romans turned this Guidth into Victoria as well as the Isle Guith or Wight into Victesis or Vecta; certes, seeing both these Islands bee dissevered from the shore, the same reason of the name will hold well in both languages. For Ninius hath taught us that guith in the British tongue betokeneth a separation. More within upon the same Forth is situate Abercorn, in Bedes time a famous Monasterie, which now by the gracious favour of King James the Sixth giveth unto James Hamilton the title of the Earle of Abercorn. And fast beside it standeth Blacknesse Castle, and beneath it Southward the ancient city Lindum, whereof Ptolomee maketh mention, which the better learned as yet call Linlithquo, commonly Lithquo, beautified and set out with a very faire house of the Kings, a goodly Church, and a fishfull lake. Of which Lake it may seeme to have assumed that name, for lin , as I have already shewed, in the British tongue soundeth as much as a Lake. A Sheriffe it had in times past by inheritance out of the familie of the Hamiltons of Peyle, and now in our daies it hath for the first Earle Sir Alexander Levingston, whom King James the Sixth raised from the dignity of a Baron, wherein his Ancestours had flourished a long time, to the honour of an Earl, like as within a while after hee promoted Mark Ker, Baron of Newbottle aforesaid, to the title of Earle of Lothien.


BENEATH the Gadeni, toward the South and West, where now are the small territories of Lidesdale, Eusdale, Eskdale, Annandale, and Nidisdale, so called of little rivers running through them, which all loose themselves in Solway Frith, dwelt in ancient times the Selgovae, the reliques of whose name seeme unto me, whether unto others I know not, to remaine in that name Solway.

2. In Lidesdale there riseth a lost Armitage [hermitage], so called because it was in times past dedicated to a solitarie life; now it is a very strong Castle which belonged to the Hepburns, who draw their originall from a certaine Englishman, a prisoner whom the Earle of March, for delivering him out of a daunger, greatly enriched. These were Earles of Bothwell, and a long time by the right of inheritance Admiralls of Scotland. But by a sister of James Earle of Bothwell the last of the Hepburns, married unto John Prior of Coldingham, base sonne to King James the Fifth (who begat too too many bastards), the title and inheritance both came unto his sonne. Hard by is Brankesey, the habitation of the warlike familie of Baclugh surnamed Scot, beside many little piles or forts of militarie men every where. In Eusdale, I would deeme, by the affinity of the name, that old Uzellum mentioned by Ptolomee stood by the river Euse.

In Eskdale, some are of opinion that the Horesti dwelt, into whose borders Julius Agricola, when hee had subdued the Britans inhabiting this tract, brought the Roman Armue, especially if wee read Horesci in steed of Horesti. For Ar-Esc in the British tongue betokeneth a place by the river Eske. As for Aesica in Eskdale, I have spoken of it before in England, and there is no cause wherefore I should iterate the same.


UNTO this on the West side adjoyneth Annandale, that is, The vale by the river Annan , into which the accesse by land is very difficult. The places of greater note herein are these, a castle by Lough-Maban, three partes whereof are environed with water and strongly walled, and the towne Annandale at the very mouth almost of the river Annan. Which lost all the glory and beauty it had by the English warre in the reigne of Edward the Sixth. In this territorie, the Johnstons are men of greatest name: a kinred even bred to warre, betweene whom and the Maxwels there hath beene professed an open enmity over long, even to deadly feude and bloudshed. Which Maxwels by right from their ancestours have the rule of this Senelschasie, for so it is accounted. This vale Eadgar King of Scotes, after hee was restored to his kingdome by auxiliarie forces out of England, gave in consideration and reward for good service unto Robert Bruse or Brus Lord of Cliveland in Yorke-shire: who with the good favour of the KIng bestowed it upon Robert his younger sonne when him selfe would not serve the King of Scots in his warres. From him flowered the Bruses Lords of Annandale, of whom Robert Brus married Isabel the daughter of William King of Scots by the daughter of Robert Avenall. His sonne likewise, Robert the third of that name, wedded the daughter of David Earle of Huntington and of Garioth, whose sonne Robert, surnamed The Noble, when the issue of Alexander the Third, King of Scots, failed, chalenged in his mothers right the Kingdome of Scotland, before Edward the First King of England as the direct and superiour Lord of the Kingdome of Scotland (so the English give it out), or an honorable Arbitratour (for so say the Scots), as beeing neerer in proximitie in degree and bloud to King Alexander the Third and Margaret, daughter to the King of Norway, although hee were the sonne by a second sister: who, soone after resigning up his owne right, granted and gave over to his sonne Robert Brus Earle of Carrick, and to his heires (I speake out of the very originall) all the right and claime which hee had or might have to the Kingdome of Scotland. But the action and suite went with John Balliol, who suited for his right as descended of the eldest sister, although in a degree farther of. And sentence was given in these words: For that the person more remote in the second degree descending in the first line is to bee preferred before a neerer in a second line in the succession of an inheritance that can not be parted. Howbeit, the said Robert, sonne to the Earle of Carrick, by his owne vertue at length recovered the Kingdome unto himself and established it to his posterity. A Prince who, as he flourished notably in regard of the glorious ornaments of his noble actes, so hee triumphed as happily with invincible fortitude and courage over fortune, that so often crossed him.


CLOSE unto Annandale on the West side lieth Nidisdale, sufficiently furnished with corne-fields and pastures; so named of the river Nid, which in Ptolomee is wrongly written Nobius for Nodius or Nidius: of which name there bee other rivers in Britaine full of shallow fourdes and muddy shelves, like as this Nid is also. It springeth out of the Lake Logh-Cure, by which flourished Corda a towne of the Selgovae. Hee taketh his course first by Sauqhuer a castle of the Creightons, who a long time kept a great port, as enjoying the dignity of the Barons of Sauqhuer and the authority besides of hereditarie Sheriffes of Nidisdale; then by Morton, which gave title of Earle to some of the familie of Douglas, out of which others of that surname have their mansion and abiding at Drumlanrig by the same river, nere unto the mouth whereof standeth Dunfreys betweene two hills, the most flourishing towne of this tract, which hath to shew also an old castle in it, famous for the making of wollen clothes, and remarkable for the murder of John Commin, the mightiest man for manred [retainers] and retinew in all Scotland: whom Robert Brus for feare he should fore-close his way to the kingdome ranne quite through with his sword in the church, and soone obteined his pardon from the Pope for committing that murder in a sacred place. Neerer unto the mouth, Solway a little village reteineth still somewhat of the old name of Selgovae. Upon the very mouth is situate Caer laverock , which Ptolomee I suppose called Carbantorigum, accounted an inprenable fort when King Edward the First accompanied with the floure of English nobility besieged and hardly wonne it; but now it is a weake dwelling house of the Barons of Maxwell, who, beeing men of an ancient and noble lineage, were a long time Wardens of these West marches, and of late advanced by marriage with the daughter one of the heires of the Earle of Morton, whereby John Lord Maxwell was declared Earle of Morton; as alse [sic] by the daughter and heire of Hereis Lord Toricles, whom John a younger sonne tooke to wife, and obtained by her the title of Baron Hereis. Moreover, in this vale by the Lake side lieth Glencarn, whence the Cuninghams, of whom I am to write more in place convenient, bare a long time the title of Earle. This Nidisdale together with Annandale nourisheth a warlike kind of men, who have beene infamous for robberies and depredations: for they dwell upon Solway Frith, a fourdable arme of the sea at low waters, through which they made many times outrodes into England for to fetch in booties, and in which the inhabitants thereabout on both sides with pleasant pastime and delightfull sight on horseback with speares hunt Salmons, whereof there is aboundance.

2. What manner of Cattaile-stealers these bee that inhabite these vales in the marches of both Kingdomes, John Lesley, himselfe a Scottish-man and Bishop of Rosse, will tell you in these wordes: They goe forth in the night by troopes out of their owne borders, through desert by-waies and many winding crankes. All the day time they refresh their horses and recreate their owne strength in lurking places appointed before hand, untill they be come thither at length in the dark night, where they would be. When they have laid hold of a bootie, back again they returne home likewise by night, through blinde waies onely, and fetching many a compasse about. The more skilfull any leader or guide is to pass through those wild desarts, crooked turnings, and steep downe-falls, in the thickest mists and deepest darknesse, hee is held in greater reputation, as one of an excelling wit. And so craftie and wily these are that seldome or never they forgo their bootie and suffer it to be taken out of their hands, unlesse it happen otherwhiles that they be caught by their adversaries following continually after, and tracing them directly by their footing, according as quick-senting Slugh-hounds doe lead them. But say they be taken, so faire spoken they are and eloquent, so manie sugred words they have at will sweetly to plead for them, that they are able to move the Judges and adversaries both, be they never so austere and severe, if not to mercie, yet to admiration, and some commiseration withall.


FROM Nidisdale as you goe on Westward, the Novantes inhabited in the vales all that tract which runneth out far and wide toward the West between the sea and Dunbritain Frith or Clydsforth, yet so indented and hollowed with nowkes and creekes that here and there it is drawne into a narrow roome, and then againe in the very utmost skirt it openeth and spreadeth it selfe broad at more liberty; whereupon some have called it the Chersonesus, that is, The Biland [Promontory] of the Novantes. But at this day their country conteineth Galloway, Carick, Kyle and Cunningham.

2. Galloway, in the Latin writers of the middle time Gaelwallia and Gallovidia, so called of the Irish who in times past dwelt there, and terme themselves short in their own language Gael , is a country rising up every where with hills, that are better for feeding of cattaile than bearing of corne. The inhabitants practise fishing as well within the sea lying round about them as in little rivers and the Loches or meeres in every place standing full of water at the foote of the hills: out of which in September they take in Weeles and Weere-nets an incredible number of most sweete and savery eeles, whereby they make no lesse gaine than other do by their little nagges, which for being well limmed, fast knit, and strongly made for to endure travaile, are much in request and bought from hence. Among these, the first place that offereth it selfe by the river Dea, mentioned in Ptolomee, which keeping the name still ful and whole they call Dee, is Kircenbright the most commodious port of this coast, and the second Stewartie of Scotland, which belongeth also to the Maxwels; then Cordines, a fort set upon a craggy and high rock by the river Fleet, and fensed with strong walles. Neere unto it the river Ken, corruptlie read in Ptolomee Jena, runneth into the sea; after it is Wigton an haven towne, with a narrow entrance unto it, betweene the two rivers Blaidnoo and Cream, which also is counted a Sheriffdome, over which Agnew is Sherif. In times past it had for Earle Archibald Douglasse, renowned in the French warre, and at this day, by the favour of King James the Sixth, John Lord Fleming, who deriveth his pedigree from the ancient Earles of Wigton.

3. Neere unto this Ptolomee placed the City Leucopibia, which I know not, to say truth, where to seeke. Yet the place requireth that it should bee that Episcopall seat of Ninian, which Bede calleth Candida Casa , and the English and Scotish in the very same sense Whit-heene. What say you, then, if Ptolomee after his manner translated that name in Greeke ????? ???????, that is White houses (in steed whereof the transcribers have thrust upon us Leucopibia ), which the Britans tearmed Candida Casa ? In this place, Ninia or Ninian the Britan, an holy man, the first that instructed the South-Picts in Christian faith, in the reigne of the Emperor Theodosius the Younger, had his seat and built a Church consecrated to the memorie of Saint Martin, after a maner unusuall among the Britans, as Bede saith, who wrote that the English in his time held this country, and when the number of the faithfull Christians multiplied, an Episcopall See was erected at this Candida Casa. A little higher there is a Biland having the sea insinuating it selfe on both sides with two Bayes, that by a narrow necke is adjoined to the firme land, and this is properly called Chersonesus and Promontorium Novantum, commonly the Mull of Galloway.

Beyond this Northward, there is a Bay taking a great compasse and full of Ilands, into which very many rivers on every side doe outlade [empty] themselves But first of all, from the very cape or top of the Promontory, is Abravanus, which, being set a little out of his owne place, is so called of Ptolomee for Aber-Ruanus , that is, The mouth of Ruan. For at this day that river is named Rian, and the lake out of which it floweth Logh-Rian, exceeding full of Herings and stone fishes.

4. This Galloway had in times past Princes and Lords over it, of whom the first recorded in Chronicles was Fergus, in the reigne of Henrie the First, King of England, who gave for his Armes A lion rampant Argent, crowned Or in a shield Azur , who after many troubles that he had sturred was driven to this exigent by King Malcolm, that he gave his sonne Ucthred to the King for an hostage, and himselfe weary of this world tooke the habit of a Chanon at Holy Rood house in Edenburgh. As for Ucthred, Gilbert his younger brother tooke him prisoner in battaile, and when hee had cut out his tongue and plucked his eies forth of his head, he cruelly bereaved him both of life and inheritance. But within some few yeres, when Gilbert was dead, Uchtreds sonne recovered his fathers inheritance, who of a sister of William Morvill Constable of Scotland, begat Alan, Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland. This Alan, by Margaret the eldest daughter of David Earle of Huntingdon, had Pervolgilda wife to John Balliol, and the mother of John Balliol King of Scotland, who contended with Robert Brus for the Kingdome of Scotland, and by a former wife, as it seemeth, he had Helen married to Roger Quincy, Earle of Winchester, who thereby was Constable of Scotland, like as William Ferrars of Groby the Nephew of the said Roger by a daughter and one of the heires. But these Englishmen soone lost their inheritance in Scotland, as also the dignity of Constable: which the Commins Earles of Bucquan, descended likewise from a daughter of Roger Quincy, obtained, untill it was translated unto the Earles of Arroll. But the title of the Lords of Galloway fell afterward to the family of the Douglasses.


NOW followeth Carrict upon Dunbritain Frith, faire to be seene with fresh pastures, supplied both by land and sea with commodities aboundantly. In this province Ptolomee placed Rerigonium a Creeke, and Rerigonium a towne. For which Berigonium is read in a very ancient copie of Ptolomee printed at Rome in the yeere 1480, so that we cannot but verily thinke that it was that which now is called Bargeney. A Lord it hath out of the family of the Kennedies, which came forth of Ireland in the reigne of Robert Brus, and is in this tract of high birth spred into many branches and of great powre. The chiefe of which Linage is Earle of Cassil. For this is the name of a Castle wherein he dwelleth by the river Dun, upon the banke whereof he hath also another Castle named Dunnur, and he is the haereditarie Bailive of this Country. For this Carrict, together with Kyle and Cuningham, are counted the three Bailleries of Scotland, because they that governe these with an ordinary powre and jurisdiction are called Ballives, by a tearme that came up in the middle times, and among the Greekes, Sicilians and Frenchmen signifieth a Conservatour or Protector. But in the age aforegoing, Carrict had Earles. For, to say nothing of Gilberts of Galloway [sic] sonne. unto whom King William gave all Carrict to be possessed for ever , we read that Adam of Kilconath was about the yeere 1270 Earle of Carrict, and died serving in the Holy-land: whose onely daughter Martha fell extremely in love with Robert Brus, a beautifull young Gentleman, as she saw him hunting, thereupon made him her husband, advanced him with the title of Earle and with possessions, unto whom she bare Robert Brus that most renowned King of Scots, from whom the Royall line of the Kings is descended. But the title of Earle of Carrict, being left for a time to the yonger sonnes of the family of Brus, afterwards among other honors encreased the stile of the Princes of Scotland.


MORE inward, from Clidds-forth, followeth Kyle, plentifull in all things, and as well inhabited. In Bedes Auctarium it is called Campus Cyel , that is, The Feild Cyel , and Coil, where it is recorded that Eadbert King of Northumberland annexed this with other territories unto his owne Kingdome. In Ptolomees time there was knowen a place heere named Vidogara, haply Aire, which is a Sherifdome, hath a townelet also of merchandise, and a well known port, by a little river of the same name. Touching which, I can thinke of no better thing to write than these verses sent unto me from Maister John Jonston:

A Citie small, but yet great minds in valiant bodies rest.
For noblenesse of Gentlemen, matching the very best.
Out of the fields what aire it draws is right pure, fresh and kind,
The soile is milde, and upon it there breaths a gentle wind.
Hence I suppose Aeria first, not Aera, cald it was.
For what have Elements to doe with matters hard as Brasse?
But to compare low things with high, if that I may be bold,
Then haply well it should have been nam'd Aurea of old.

Besides the river Aire there be other two riverets that water this litle territorie, having many villages skattering along their bankes: namely, Longar, neere unto which the Craufords, and Cesnocke, by which the Cambels (families in this tract of good worship) dwell: upon the banke whereof standeth Uchiltre Castle the seat of the Stewarts, that are of the bloud roiall, as who issued from the Dukes of Albanie, and thereupon are the Barons of Ulchiltrey, out of which house was that noble Robert Stewart who kept continually with the Prince of Condie as an inseparable companion, and was with him slaine in France in battaile. The government of Kyle belongeth by a heritable right to Cambells of Louden, as Bailife thereof.


CUNNINGHAM, adjoining to Kyle on the East side and the North, butteth upon the same Forth so close that it restraineth the breadth thereof, which hetherto lay out and spred at large. The name, if one interpret it, is as much as the Kings Habitation , by which a man may guesse how commodious and pleasant it is. This territorie is watered with Irwin, that divideth it from Kile: at the spring-head well neere whereof, Kilmarnocke sheweth it selfe, the dwelling place of the Barons Boides: of whom in the reigne of James the First, Thomas by a prosperous gale of court favour was advanced to the authoritie of Regent or Vice Roy, Robert his sonne to the dignity of Earle of Aran and marriage with the Kings sister. But soone after, when the said gale came about and blew contrary, they were judged enemies to the State. Robert also had his wife taken from him and given unto James Hamilton, their goods were confiscate, fortune made a game of them, and when they had lost all, they died in exile. Howbeit, their posterity recovered the ancient honor of Barons, and honorably enjoy it at this day. At the mouth of the river Irwin standeth Irwin a Bourough, with an haven so barred up with shelves of sand, and so shallow withall, that it can beare none other vessels but small barkes and boates. Androssan also, a pile belonging to the Montgomeries, more above, standeth higher over the Creeke: this is a very ancient and famous family as any other, who have to shew for witnesse of their warlicke proesse Pununy, a fort built with the ransome money of Sir Henrie Percy surnamed Hot-Spurre, whom John Montgomerie with his owne hand tooke prisoner in the battaile at Otterburn, and led away captive. Not farre from Androssan is Largis, embrued with the bloud of the Norwegians by King Alexander the Third. From whence, as you follow the shore bending and giving in, you meet with Eglington a faire Castle, which was the possession of certaine Gentlemen highly descended of the same surname, from whom it came by marriage unto the Montgomeries, who thereby receaved the title of Earles of Eglington. But whence the said surname should come, a man can hardly tel. This I know, that out of Normandie it came into England, and that divers families there were of the same name, but that in Essex, from which Sir Thomas Montgomerie Knight of the order of the Garter descended in the reigne of Edward the Fourth, gave Armes a little different from these. This noble linage is faire and farre spread, and out of those of Gevan was that Gabriell de Lorges, called Earle of Montgomerie, Captaine of the gard of Scots (which Charles the Fifth King of France instituted for defence of his owne person and his successors, in testimonie of their fidelity and his love toward them), who in running at tilt slew Henrie the Second King of Fraunce, by occasion that a broken splint of his speare, where the helmet chanced to be open, entred at his eie and pierced into his brain; and afterwards in that civill warre wherein all France was in a broile, whiles he tooke part with the Protestants, he was apprehended and beheaded. But the Cunninghams in this tract are counted to be the greatest and more numerous family, the chiefe whereof, enjoying the honour of Earle of Glancarn, dwelleth at Kilmauris and fetcheth his descent out of England, and from an English gentleman, who together with others killed Thomas Archbishop of Canterburie; how true it is I know not, but they ground haply upon a probable conjecture taken from an Archbishops pall which the Cunninghams give in their coat of Armes.


WITHIN the sight of Cunningham, among many sundry other Ilands, Glotta, the Isle mentioned by Antonine the Emperour, beareth up his head in the very Forth and saltwater of the river Glota or Cluyd, called at this day Arran, of a Castle bearing the same name. Inwardly it mounteth up altogether with high rising hils, at the botome and foote whereof along the shore it is wel inhabited. The first Earle heereof that I can read of was Robert Boide, whose wife and Earldome together, when Boide was banished the realme James Lord Hamilton, as I said erewhile, obtained, and his posterity enjoyed the same Earldome, saving that of late Sir James Steward, appointed guardian to James Hamilton Earle of Arran when he was so defective in understanding that he could not manage his estate, tooke this title in the right of being Guardian.

2. Neere unto this standeth Buthe, so called of a little religious Cell which Brendanus founded (for so its a little Cell tearmed in the Scotish tongue). In this Iland is Rothsay Castle, which giveth the title of Dukedome unto the King of Scots eldest sonne, who is borne Prince of Scotland, Duke of Rothsay, and Seneschall of Scotland, since time that King Robert the Third invested Robert his eldest sonne Duke of Rothsay, the first in Scotland that ever was created Duke. With which title also Queene Mary honored Henry Lord Darley, before she tooke him to be her husband. Then shew themselves Hellan, sometimes called Hellan Leneow , that is, as John Fordon interpreteth it, The Saints Island, and Hellan Tinoc , that is, The Swines Iland , with a great number of other Ilands of lesse note and reckoning in the same Forth.


BEYOND the Novantes, more inward by the river Glotta or Cluyd, and farther stil even to the very East sea, dwelt in times past the Damnii in those countries, if I have any judgement (for in things so farre remote from our remembrance, and in so thicke a most of obscurity, who can speake of certanty?), which are now called Cluydsdale, The Baronie of Renfraw, Lennox, Strivelinshire, Menteth and Fife.

2. Neere unto the head of Cluyd in Crawfoord Moor, among the wild wasts, certaine husbandmen of the country, after great store of violent raine, hapned to find certaine small peeces of scrapings of gold, which have this long time given great hope of much richesse, but most of all in our daies, since that Sir Beamis Bulmer undertook with great endevour to find out heere a mine of gold. Certes, there is Azur gotten forth every day without any paines in manner at all. Now the Castle of Crawford, together with the title of the Earle of Crawford, was by Robert the Second, King of Scots, given unto Sir James Lindesey, who by a single combat performed with Baron Welles an Englishman wonne high commendation for his valour. These Lindeseies have deserved passing well of their country and are of ancient nobility, ever since that Sir William Lindesey married one of the heires of William of Lancastre Lord of Kandale in England, whose neice in the third degree of lineall descent was married into the most honorable family of Coucy in France. Cluyd, after he hath from his spring head with much strugling got out Northward, by Baron Somervills house, receiveth unto him from out of the West the river Duglasse or Douglasse, so called of a blackish or greenish water hat it hath: which river communicateth his name both to the vale through which he runneth called Douglasdale, and also to Douglasse castle therein: which name that castle likewise hath imparted unto the family of the Douglasses. Which I assure you is very ancient, but most famous ever since that Sir James Douglasse stucke very close at all times as a most fast friend unto King Robert Brus, and was ready alwaies with singular courage, resolution, and wisdome to assist him claiming the Kingdome and most troublesome and dangerous times: and whom the said King Robert charged at his death to carry his heart to Jerusalem, that he might be discharged of his vow, made to goe to the Holy-land. In memoriall whereof the Douglasses have inserted in their Coate of Armes a mans Heart. From which time this family grew up to that powre and greatnesse, and namely after that King David the Second had created William Earle of Douglasse, that they after a sort awed the Kings themselves. For at one time, well neere, there were six Earles of them, namely of this Douglasse, of Anguis, of Ormond, of Wigton, of Murray, and of Morton: among whom the Earle of Wigton through his martiall prowesse and desert obtained at the hands of Charles the Seventh King of France the title of Duke of Tourain, and left the same to two Earles of Douglass his heires after him.

3. Above the confluents of Douglasse and Cluyd is Lanric the haereditarie Sherifdome of the Hamiltons, who for their name are beholden unto Hamilton castle, which standeth somewhat higher upon Cluids banke in a fruitfull and passing pleasant place. but they referre their originall, as they have a tradition, to a certaine Englishman surnamed Hampton, who, having taken part with Robert Brus, received from him faire lands in this tract. Much increase of their welth and estate came by the bounteous hand of King James the Third, who bestowed in marriage upon Sir James Hamilton his owne eldest sister, whom he had taken perforce from the Lord Boide her husband together with the Earldome of Arran; but of honors and dignities, by the States of the Kingdome, who after the death of King James the Fifth ordained James Hamilton, grand sonne to the former James, Regent of Scotland, whom Henrie also the Second, King of France, advanced to be the Duke of Casteau Herald in Poictou, as also by King James the Sixth, who honoured his sonne John with the title of Marquesse of Hamilton, which honourable title was then first brought into Scotland.

4. The river Glotta or Cluyd runneth from Hamilton by Bothwell, which glorieth in the Earles thereof, namely John Ramsay, whose greatnesse with King James the Third was excessive, but pernicious both to himselfe and the King;and the Hepburns, whom I have already spoken of, and so streight forward with a ready streame through Glascow, in ancient times past a Bishops seat, but discontinued a great while, untill that King William restored it up againe. But now it is an Archbishops See and an University, which Bishop Turnbull, after he had in a pious and religious intent built in a colledge, in the yeere 1554 first founded. For pleasant site, and apple trees and other like fruit trees much commended, having also a very faire bridge supported with eight Arches. Of which towne John Jonston thus versified:

The sumptuous port of Bishops great hath not adourn'd thee so,
Nor mitre rich, that hath beene cause of thine accursed woe,
As Cluyds Muses grace thee now, O Glascow towne. For why?
They make thee beare thy head aloft up to the starry skie.
Cluyd the beauty of the world, for fishfull streame renown'd,
Refresheth all the neighbour fields that ly about it ground.
But Glasgow beauty is to Cluyd, and grace to countries nie,
And by the streames that flow from thence, all places fructifie.

5. Along the hithermore banke of Cluid lieth the Baronie of Reinfraw, so called of the principall towne, which may seeme to be Randuara in Ptolomee, by the river Cathcart, that hath the Baron of Cathcart dwelling upon it, carrying the same surname and of ancient nobility. Neere unto which (for this little province can shew a goodly breed of nobility) their border Cruikston, the seat in times past of the Lords of Darley, from whom by right of marriage it came to the Earles of Lennox, whence Henrie the father of King James the Sixth was called Lord Darley. Halkead, the habitation of the Barons of Ros, descended originally from English bloud, as who fetch their pedigree from that Robert Ros of Warke who long since left England and came under the alleageance of the King of Scots. Paslay, sometimes a famous Monasterie founded by Alexander the second of that name, high Steward of Scotland, which for a gorgeous Church and rich furniture was inferiour to few. But now by the beneficiall favour of King James the Sixth it yeeldeth both dwelling place and title of Baron to Lord Claud Hamilton, a younger sonne of Duke Chasteu Herald. And Sempill, the Lord whereof Baron Sempill, by ancient right, is Sherife of this Baronie. But the title of Baron of Rainfrew by a peculiar priviledge doth appertaine unto the Prince of Scotland.


ALONG the other banke of Cluyd above Glasgow runneth forth Levinia or Lennox Northward, among a number of hilles close couched one by another, having that name of the river Levin, which Ptolomee calleth Lelanonius, and runneth into Cluyd out of Logh Lomund, which spreadeth it selfe heere under the mountaines twenty miles long and eight miles broad, passing well stored with variety of fish, but most especially with a peculiar fish that is to be found no where else (they call it Pollac), as also with Ilands, concerning with many fables have beene forged, and those rife among the comon people. As touching an Iland heere that floatheth and waveth to and fro, I list not to make question thereof. What should let [hinder] but that a lighter body, and spungeous withall in maner of a pumish stone, may swimme above the water? And Plinie writeth how in the Lake Vadimon there be Ilands full of grasse, and covered over with rushes and reeds that float up and downe. But I leave it unto them that dwell neerer unto this place, and better knowe the nature of this Lake, whether this old Distichon of our Necham be true or no:

With rivers Scotland is enrich'd, and Lomund there a Lake
So cold of nature is, that stickes it quickly stones doth make.

2. Round about the edge of this Lake there be fishers cottages, but nothing else memorable, unlesse it be Kilmoronoc, a proper fine house of the Earles of Cassiles on the East side of it, which hath a most pleasant prospect into the said Lake. But at the confluence where Leven emptieth it selfe out of the Lake into Cluyd standeth the old City called Al-Cluyd. Bede noted that it signified (In whose language I know not) as much as The rock Cluyd. True it is that Ar-Cluyd signifieth in the British tongue upon Clyde , or upon the rocke , and cluid in ancient English sounded the same that a Rock. The succeeding posterity called this place Dunbritton , that is The Britans towne (and corruptly by a certaine transposition of letters, Dunbarton), because the Britans held it longest against the Scots, Picts and Saxons. For it is the strongest of all the castles in Scotland by naturall situation, towring up on a rough, craggy and two headed rocke, at the very meeting of the rivers in a greene plaine. In one of the tops or heads abovesaid, there standeth up a lofty watch towre or keepe; on the other, which is the lower, there are sundry strong bulwarks. Betweene these two tops on the North side it hath one onely ascent, by which hardly one by one can passe up, and that with a labour by grees or steps cut out aslope travers the rock. In steed of diches, on the West side serveth the river Levin, on the South, Cluid, and on the East a boggy flat which at every tide is wholy covered over with waters, and on the North side the very upright steepenesse of the place is a most sufficient defense. Certaine remaines of the Britans, presuming of the natural strength of this place and their owne man-hood, who, as Gildas writeth, gat themselves a place of refuge in high mountaines and hills, steepe and naturally fensed, as it were, with rampiers and ditches, in most thicke woods and forrests, in rockes also of the sea , stood out and defended themselves here after the Romans departure for three hundred yeeres, in the midst of their enemies. For in Bedes time, as himselfe writeth, it was the best fortified city of the Britans. But in the yeere 756 Eadbert King of Northumberland and Oeng King of the Picts with their joint forces enclosed it round about by siege, and brought it to such a desperate extremity that it was rendred unto them by composition. Of this place, the territorie round about it is called the Sherifdome of Dunbarton, and hath had the Earles of Lennox this long time for their Sheriffes, by birthright and inheritance.

3. As touching the Earles of Lennox themselves to omit those of more ancient and obscure times, there was one Duncane Earle of Lennox in the reigne of Robert the Second, who died and left none but daughters behind him. Of whom one was married to Alan Steward, descended from Robert, a younger sonne of Walter the second of that name HIgh Steward of Scotland, and brother likewise to Alexander Steward the second, from whom the Noblest and Roiall race of Scotland hath beene propagated. The surname Steward was given unto that most noble familie in regard of the honourable office of the Stewardshippe of the kingdome, as who had the charge of the Kings Revenewes. The said Alan had issue John Earle of Lennox, and Robert, Captaine of that company of Scotishmen at Armes which Charles the Sixth King of France first instituted in lieu of some recompence unto the Scottish nation, which by their valour had deserved passing well of the Kingdom of France; who also by the same Prince, for his vertue sake, was endowed with the Seignorie of Aubigny in Auvergne. John had a sonne named Mathew Earle of Lennox, who wedded the daughter of James Hamilton by Marion daughter to King James the Second, on whom he begat John Earle of Lennox. He, taking armes to deliver King James the Fifth out of the hands of the Douglasses and the Hamiltons, was slaine by the Earle of Arran his unkle on the mothers side. This John was father to Mathew Earle of Lennox, who having susteined sundry troubles in France and Scotland, found fortune more friendly to him in England through the favour of King Henry the Eight, considering that hee bestowed upon him in marriage his Neice, with faire lands. By the meanes of this happie marriage were brought into the world Henrie and Charles. Henry, by Mary Queene of Scots, had issue James the Sixth, King of Britaine by the propitious grace of the eternal God, borne in a most auspicate and lucky houre to knit and unite in one body of an Empire the whole Island of Britaine, divided as wel in it self, as it was heretofore from the rest of the world, and (as wee hope and pray) to lay a most sure foundation of an everlasting security for our heires and the posterity. As for Charles, he had issue one onely daughter Arbella, who above her sex hath so embraced the studies of the best literature that therein shee hath profited and proceeded with singular commendation, and is comparable with the excellent Ladies of old time. When Charles was dead, after that the Earledome of Lennox, whereof he stood enfeoffed, was revoked by Parliamentary authority in the yeere of our Lord 1579, and his unkle by the fathers side Robert Bishop of Cathanes had some while enjoied this title (in lieu wherof hee received at the Kings hands the honour of the Earle of March), King James the Sixth conferred the honorable title of Duke of Lennox upon Esme Steward sonne to John Lord D'Aubigny yonger brother to Mathew aforesaid Earle of Lennox, which Lodowic Esme his sonne at this day honorably enjoieth. For since the time of Charles the Sixth there were of this line Lords of Aubigny in France, the said Robert before named, and Bernard or Eberard under Charles the Eight and Lewis the Twelfth, who is commended with great praise unto posterity by Paulus Jovius for his noble acts most valerously exploited in the warre of Naples, a most firme and trusty companion of King Henry the Seventh when he entred into England. Who used for his Emprese or devise a Lion between buckles with this Mot [motto], DISTANTIA IUNGIT, for that by his means the Kingdomes of France and Scotland, severed and disjoined so farre in distance, were by a streighter league of friendship conjoined, like as Robert Steward Lord D'Aubigny of the same race, who was Marshall of France under King Lewis the Eleventh, for the same cause used the roiall Armes of France with buckles Ore in a border Gueules , which the Earles and Dukes of Lennox have ever since borne quarterly with the Armes of Steward.


UPON Lennox North-eastward bordereth the territory of Sterling, so named of the principall towne therein, for fruitfull soile and numbers of gentlemen in it second to no province of Scotland. Heere is that narrow land or streight by which Dunbritton Frith and Edenborrough Frith (that I may use the termes of this age), piercing farre into the land out of the West and East Seas, are divided asunder, that they meete not the one with the other. Which thing Julius Agricola, who marched hitherto and beyond, first observed, and fortified this space betweene with garrisons, so as all the part of Britaine in this side was then in possession of the Romans, and the enemies removed and driven, as it were, into another Island, in so much as Tacitus judged right truely there was no other bound or Limite of Britaine to bee sought for. Neither verily in the time ensuing did either the Valour of Armies or the Glorie of the Roman name, which scarcely could be staied, set out the marches of the Empire in this part of the world farther, although with inrodes they other whiles molested and endammaged them. But after this glorious Expedition of Agricola, when himself was called back, Britaine, as saith Tacitus, became for-let [neglected], neither was the possession kept stil thus farre. For the Caledonian Britans drave the Romans backe as farre as to the river Tine, in so much as Hadrian, who came into Britaine in person about the fortieth yeere after and reformed many things in it, went no farther forward, but gave commandement that the God Terminus, which was wont to give ground unto none, should retire back-ward out off this place, like as in the East on this side Euphrates. Hence it is that Saint Augustin wrote in this wise, God Terminus, who gave not place to Jupiter, yeelded unto the will of Hadrianus, yeelded to the rashnesse of Julian, yeelded to the necessity of Jovian. In so much as Hadrian had enough to doe for to make a wall of turfe betweene the rivers Tine and Esk, well near an hundred miles Southward on this side Edenborrough Frith. But Antoninus Pius, who beeing adopted by Hadrian bare his name, stiled thereupon Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius, under the conduct of Lollius Urbicus, whom he had sent hither Lieutenant, repelled the Northern enemies backe againe beyond Bodotria or Edenborrough Forth, and that by raising another wall of turfe, namely beside that of Hadrianus, as Capitolinus writeth. Which wall, that is was reared in this very place whereof I now speake, and not by Severus (as it is commonly thought) I will produce no other witnesses than two ancient inscriptions digged up here, of which the one, fastened in the wall of an house at Cader, sheweth how the Second Legion Augusta set up the wall for the space of three miles and more; the other, now in the house of the Earle Marshall at Dunotyr, which implieth that a band of the Twentieth Legion Victrix raised the said wal three miles long. But see here the very inscriptions themselves as Servatius Riheley, a Gentleman of Silesia who curiously travailed these countries, copied them out for mee:



2. At Cadir where this latter inscription is extant, there is another stone also erected by the Second Legion Augusta, where, within a Laurell garland supported by two little images resembling victorie, are these letters:


And in a village called Miniacruch, out of a Ministers house there was remooved this inscription into a Gentlemans house, which is there new built out of the ground:

D. M.

But when the Northern nations in the reigne of Commodus, having passed once over this wall, had made much wast and spoile in the Country, the Emperour Severus, as I have already said, repaired this wall of Hadrian. Howbeit afterwards the Romans brought eftsoones the country lying betweene under their subjection. For Ninius hath recorded that Carausius under Diocletian strengthened this wall another time, and fortified it with seven castles, Lastly, the Romans fensed this place (when Theodosius the Younger was Emperour) under the conduct of Gallio of Ravenna, Now, saith Bede, they made a turfe wall, rearing it not so much with stone as with turfes (as having no cunning artificer for so great a peece of worke), and the same to no use, betweene two Friths or Armes of the sea, for many miles in length, that, where the fense of water was wanting, there by the helpe of a wall they might defend their border from the invasion of enemies. Of which worke, that is to say a very broade and high wall, a man may see to this day most certaine and evident remaines. This wall beganne, as the Scots in these daies give out, at the river Aven, that goeth into Edenborrow Forth, and, having passed over the riveret Carron, reacheth into Dunbritton. But Bede, as I said ere while, affirmeth that it beginneth in a place called Pen Vaell, that is, in the Picts language, as much as The head of the wall , in the Britans tongue Pen-Gual, in English Penwalton, in Scottish Cevall, all which names no doubt are derived from vallum in Latin. And he saith that place is almost two miles from Aberecurvig or Abercurving. And it endeth, as the common sort thinke, at Kirk-Patrick, the native soile (as some writeth) of Saint Patrick the Irishmens Apostle, neere unto Cluyd, according to Bede at Alcluid, after Ninius, at the City Pen Alcloyt , which may seeme all one. Now, this wall is commonly called Grahams dyke, either of Graham a warlike Scot, whose valour was especially seene when the breach was made through it, or else of the hill Grampie at the foote whereof it stood. The author of Rota Temporum calleth it the wall of Aber-corneth , that is, of the mouth of the river Corneth , where in Bedes time, there was a famous monasterie standing, as hee hath recorded, upon English ground, but neere unto that frith or arme of the sea which in those daies served the Lands of the English and the Picts. Hard by the wall of turfe, what way as the river Carron crosseth this Shirifdome of Sterling, toward the left hand are seene two mounts cast up by mans hand, which they call Duni Pacis , that is, Knolles of peace , and almost two miles lower there is an ancient round building, foure and twenty cubits high and thirteene broad, open in the top, framed of rough stone without lime, having the upper part of every stone so tenanted into the nether [lower] as that the whole worke, rising still narrow, by a mutuall interlacing and clasping upholdeth it selfe. Some call this the Temple of God Terminus, others Arthurs-Oven, who father every stately and sumptuous thing upon Arthur. Others againe, Julius Hoff , and suppose it to have beene built by Julius Caesar. But I would thinke rather that Julius Agricola built it, who fortified this frontier part, were it not that Ninius had already enformed us that it was erected by Carausius for a Triumphall arch For hee , as Ninnius writeth, built upon the banke of Caron a round house of polished stone, erecting a Triumphall Arch in memoriall of a victorie. Hee reedified also the wall and strengthened it with seven Castles. In the midest space betweene Duni Pacis and this building, on the right-hand banke of Caron, there is yet to be discerned a confused face of a little ancient City, where the vulgar people beleeveth there was some times a roade for ships, who call it Camelot, by a name that is rife in King Arthurs booke; and they contend, but al in vaine, to have it that Camalodunum which Tacitus mentioneth. But it would seeme rather by the name of the river Carron running underneath to have been Corta Damnorum, which Ptolomee mentioneth in this tract. And now take with you that which George Buchanan that excellent Poet wrote of the limite of the Roman Empires at Carron:

'Gainst warlike Scots with axes arm'd, a mighty frontier wall
The Romans rais'd. And limit there, which Terminus they call,
Nere Carron streame, now past all hope more British ground to gaine
Markes out the Roman Empires end, whence they to turn were faine.

3. In this territorie of Sterling, on the East side there sheweth it selfe Castle Callendar, belonging to the Barons of Levingston. And the familie of the Barons Fleming dwelleth hard by at Cumbernald, which they received at the hands of King Robert Brus for their service valiantly and faithfully performed in defense of their country; whereby also they attained unto the hereditarie honour to be Chamberlains of Scotland. And even very lately the favour of King James the Sixth hath honoured this house with the title of Earle, what time as he created John Baron Fleming Earle of Wigton. In a place nere adjoyning standeth Elpheingston, which likewise hath his Barons, advanced to that dignity by King James the Fourth. And where Forth, full of his windings and crooked crankes, runneth downe with a rolling pace and hath a bridge over him, standeth Sterlin, commonly called Strivelin and Sterlin Borrough, where on the very brow of a steepe rocke there is mounted on high a passing strong castle of the Kings, which King James the Sixth hath beautified with new buildings, and whereof this long time the Lorss of Ereskin have beene Capitaines, unto whom the charge and tuition of the Princes of Scotland during their minority hath beene otherwiles committed. Whereas some there bee that would have the good and lawfull money of England, which is called Sterling money, to take the name from hence, they are much deceived: for that denomination came from the Germans, of their Easterly dwelling termed by Englishmen Easterlings, whom John King of England first sent for to reduce the silver to the due finenesse and purity, and such moneys in ancient writing are evermore found by the name of Esterling. But concerning Sterlin towne, the verses that John Jonston hath made shall supplie all the rest:

A regall pallace, stately set, beholds from mount aloft,
Towne wall, built hanging on the side of hill with double cost.
The sacred mother unto Kings, of Kings babes eke the nource,
Hence is it that she prises her selfe in Kings names and no worse.
But enterteineth every one, by name it skils not what,
A friend or foe, friend guest or no, shee reakneth nought of that.
In steed of gaine this turns to losse. Besides, how oft, alas,
Hath discord foule with Nobles bloud steind' hence both ground and grasse?
In this alone unhappy shee. Else not, nor shall yee finde
Elsewhere the aire more mild and cleere, or soile of better kinde.

4. About two miles hence, the Banoc-bourn runneth between exceeding high banks on both side, and with a very swift streame in winter, toward the Forth: a bourne most famous for as glorious a victory as ever the Scots had, what time as Edward the Second King of England was put to flight, who was faine to make hard shift and in great hast and feare to take a boat and save his life; yea and the most puissant army which England had before sent out, was discomfited through the valiant prowesse of King Robert Brus, in so much as for two yeeres after the English came not into the field against the Scots. About Sterlin, Ptolomee seemeth to place Alauna, which is either neare the little river Alon, that here entreth into the Forth, or else by Alway an house of the Ereskins, who by inheritance are the Sheriffes of all this territory without the Burgh. But I have not yet read of any one dignified by the title of Earle of Sterlin.

William Camden, Britain, or, a Chorographicall Description of the most flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland (London: George Bishop and John Norton, 1610) Copyright 2004 by Dana F. Sutton. This text was transcribed by Professor Sutton, of the University of California, Irvine, from Philemon Holland's 1610 translation [British Library Short Title Catalogue 4509, Early English Books reel 911:1]. For a full critical edition presenting Camden's original Latin text in parallel with Holland's translation, visit Professor Sutton's site at:


Placename mark-up by Humphrey Southall.

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